Finding Data Citing data
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Finding Data: Data on Crime
ACCESS TO THESE DATA FILES ARE RESTRICTED TO CURRENTLY ENROLLED/EMPLOYED MEMBERS OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY.
Sample Size: Generally, 1,000 - 2,000 households from each participating country.
Volume of juvenile cases disposed by courts having jurisdiction over juvenile matters (delinquency, status offense, and dependency cases).
Designed to provide geographic and other identification information for each record included in the FBI's UCR files and Bureau of Justice Statistics' Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies (CSLLEA). The LEAIC records contain common match keys for merging reported crime data and Census Bureau data. These linkage variables include the Originating Agency Identifier (ORI) code, Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) state, county and place codes, and Governments Integrated Directory government identifier codes. These variables make it possible for researchers to take police agency-level data, combine them with Bureau of the Census and BJS data, and perform place-level, jurisdiction-level, and government-level analyses.
Presents information on three types of general purpose law enforcement agencies: state police, local police, and sheriff's departments. Data from the primary state police agency in each of 49 states (Hawaii does not have a state police agency) are also presented. Variables include size of the populations served by the typical police or sheriff's department, levels of employment and spending, various functions of the department, average salary levels for uniformed officers, and other matters relating to management and personnel.
Summary statistics and guides to microdata on law enforcement.
Longitudinal study of families in Los Angeles County, California, and of the neighborhoods in which they live. Designed to answer key research and policy questions in 3 areas:
Sample Size: Includes 65 neighborhoods with approximately 40-50 households in each neighborhood. Wave 1 includes approximately 3200 children and teens ages 0 to 17.
Appellate information from the 12 circuit courts of appeals of the United States. The United States Sentencing Commission compiled from the Clerk of the Court of each court of appeals the final opinions and orders, both published and unpublished, in all criminal appeals for the time period surveyed. The Commission also collected habeas corpus decisions (although technically civil matters), because such cases often involve sentencing issues. Both the "case" and the "defendant" are used in this collection as units of analysis. Each "case" comprises individual records representing all codefendants participating in a consolidated appeal. Each defendant's record comprises the sentencing-related issues corresponding to that particular defendant.
Information on federal criminal cases sentenced under the Sentencing Guidelines and Policy Statements of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984. The data files include all cases received by the United States Sentencing Commission that had sentencing dates between November 1, 1987, and September 30, 1995, and were assessed as constitutional. Constitutionality compares each case's sentencing date, circuit, district, and judge to provide uniformity in reporting the cases. The cases are categorized either as New Law, with all offenses occurring after the November 1, 1987, guidelines, or as Mixed Law, with at least one count occurring after the guideline effectiveness date and other counts prior to the guidelines.
Included 23 drug courts and 6 comparison sites selected from 8 states across the country. The purpose was to: (1) Test whether drug courts reduce drug use, crime, and multiple other problems associated with drug abuse, in comparision with similar offenders not exposed to drug courts, (2) address how drug courts work and for whom by isolating key individual and program factors that make drug courts more or less effective in achieving their desired outcomes, (3) explain how offender attitudes and behaviors change when they are exposed to drug courts and how these changes help explain the effectiveness of drug court programs, and (4) examine whether drug courts generate cost savings. Offenders in all 29 sites were surveyed in 3 waves, at baseline, 6 months later, and 18 months after enrollment. The research comprises 3 major components: process evaluation, impact evaluation, and a cost-benefit analysis. The process evaluation describes how the 23 drug court sites vary in program eligibility, supervision, treatment, team collaboration, and other key policies and practices. The impact evaluation examines whether drug courts produce better outcomes than comparison sites and tests which court policies and offender attitudes might explain those effects. The cost-benefit analysis evaluates drug court costs and benefits.
Data on the personal, social, economic, career, and political attributes of judges who served on the United States Courts of Appeals from 1801 to 2000. Includes conventional social background variables such as appointing president, religion, political party affiliation, education, and prior experience. In addition, unique items are provided: the temporal sequence of prior career experiences, the timing of and reason for leaving the bench, gender, race and ethnicity, position numbering analogous to the scheme used for the Supreme Court, American Bar Association rating, and net worth (for judges who began service on the bench after 1978). The second objective of this project was to merge these data with a multi-user database on United States Courts of Appeals decisions. That database includes a unique identification number for each judge participating in a particular decision. The combined databases should enable scholars to explore: (1) intra- and inter-circuit fluctuation in the distribution of social background characteristics, (2) generational and presidential cohort variation in these attributes, and (3) state and partisan control of seats. The collection also facilitates the construction of models that examine the effects of personal attributes on decision-making, while controlling for the conditions above.
Data on the personal, social, economic, career, and political attributes of judges who served on the United States District Courts from 1801 to 2000. Includes conventional social background variables such as the name of the appointing president, the judge's religion, political party affiliation, education, and prior experience. In addition, unique items are provided: the temporal sequence of prior career experiences, the timing of and reason for leaving the bench, gender, race and ethnicity, position numbering analogous to the scheme used for the Supreme Court, American Bar Association rating, and net worth (for judges who began service on the bench after 1978). The second objective of this project was to merge these data with a multi-user database on United States District Court decisions. It includes a unique identification number for each judge participating in a particular decision. The combined databases should enable scholars to explore: (1) intra- and inter-circuit fluctuation in the distribution of social background characteristics, (2) generational and presidential cohort variation in these attributes, and (3) state and partisan control of seats. Also facilitates the construction of models that examine the effects of personal attributes on decision making, while controlling for the conditions above.
Includes information about the cause of all recorded deaths.
Preserves and distributes computerized crime and justice data from Federal agencies, state agencies, and investigator initiated research projects. Has a collection of online Resource Guides that highlight popular criminal justice research topics.
In 1983, the National Prisoners Statistics program, which compiled data on prisoner admissions and releases, and the Uniform Parole Reports were combined into one reporting system, the National Corrections Reporting Program (NCRP). The NCRP evolved from the need to improve and consolidate data on corrections at the national level. Its objective was to provide a consistent and comprehensive description of prisoners entering and leaving the custody or supervision of state and federal authorities. In addition to the state prisons, the Federal Prison System and the California Youth Authority also began reporting data in 1984.
Previously called the National Crime Survey (NCS). Has been collecting data on personal and household victimization since 1973. An ongoing survey, conducted twice each year. Primary source of information on the characteristics of criminal victimization and on the number and types of crimes not reported to law enforcement authorities. Includes the supplement Police-Public Contact Survey. For quick analysis from 1993 to the present, use the NCVS Victimization Analysis Tool (NVAT).
Sample Size: Nationally representative sample of 42,000 households comprising nearly 76,000 persons.
A multisite research program aimed at improving the treatment of offenders with drug use disorders and integrating criminal justice and public health responses to drug involved offenders. Develop and tests integrated approaches to the treatment of offenders with drug use disorders. Addresses important cross-cutting issues in criminal justice and drug abuse treatment when dealing with the drug involved offender.
Data on nonfatal firearm-related injuries. Commonly called the "CDC Firearm Injury Surveillance Study". Provides the basis for national estimates of nonfatal firearm-related injuries and nonfatal BB/pellet gun-related injuries treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States. Beginning in July 2000, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, in collaboration with the Consumer Product Safety Commission, expanded NEISS to collect data on all types and causes of injuries treated in a representative sample of hospitals. This system is called the "NEISS All Injury Program (NEISS AIP)". These data provide the basis for national estimates of all types of nonfatal injuries treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States.
A component part of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR). Nationwide view of crime administered by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, based on the submission of crime information by participating law enforcement agencies. Implemented to meet the new guidelines formulated for the UCR to provide new ways of looking at crime for the 21st century. It is an expanded and enhanced UCR Program, designed to capture incident-level data and data focused on various aspects of a crime incident.
Job Corps is the nation's largest & most comprehensive residential education and job training program for at-risk youth, ages 16 through 24. Combines classroom, practical, and work-based learning experiences to prepare youths to become more responsible, employable and productive citizens. Contains information on education, employment and earnings, marital status and household composition, fertility, welfare receipt and other income, health, drug use and drug treatment, arrest behavior and criminal incidents conducted against or by the respondent. In addition, the 30-month follow-up interview contains data on literacy skills.
Tabulates the number of persons convicted of felonies in state courts and describes their sentences. Data were collected from state courts and state prosecutors in 100 counties of the United States. The collection contains socio-demographic information such as age, race, and sex of the felon. Types of offenses committed include homicide, rape, and robbery. Adjudication variables referring to the process between arrest and sentencing are also included. Data can be analyzed at the national level or by the individual counties.
Survey of chief prosecutors in state court systems. A chief prosecutor is an official, usually locally elected and typically with the title of district attorney or county attorney, who is in charge of a prosecutorial district made up of one or more counties, and who conducts or supervises the prosecution of felony cases in a state court system. Prosecutors in courts of limited jurisdiction, such as municipal prosecutors, were not included in the survey. The survey's purpose was to obtain detailed descriptive information on prosecutors' offices, as well as information on their policies and practices.
Nationwide study to document the incidence and prevalence of children's exposure to violence in the United States.
State-based, active surveillance system designed to obtain a complete census of all resident and occurrent violent deaths in participating states.
Annual survey of law enforcement agencies to assess the extent of youth gang problems by measuring the presence, characteristics, and behaviors of local gangs in jurisdictions throughout the United States. Summary data.
Collection of tens of millions of crime records. Provides an unprecedented level of detail about individual offenders, their crimes, and their interactions with the criminal justice system; additionally, it translates court records into a common framework for cross-jurisdiction comparison. In particular, the database includes anonymized identifiers to enable large-scale exploration of criminal re-offense (recidivism). The CRD is growing monthly; as of this writing it contains 22.5 million records from 1977 to 2014 from Harris County in Texas, New York City, Miami-Dade County in Florida, and the state of New Mexico.
Survey of law enforcement agencies to assess the extent of youth gang problems by measuring the presence, characteristics, and behaviors of local gangs in jurisdictions. For quick analysis see the Dataverse version.
Data records from the New York Police Department Stop, Question and Frisk program.
Information tracking adult offenders from the point of entry into the criminal justice system (typically by arrest), through final disposition, regardless of whether the offender is convicted or acquitted. Collected by individual states from existing data, the datasets include all cases that reached disposition during the calendar year. Using the individual adult offender as the unit for analysis, selected information is provided about the offender and his or her arrest, prosecution, and court disposition. Examples of variables included are arrest and level of arrest charge, date of arrest, charge filed by the prosecutor, prosecutor or grand jury disposition, type of counsel, type of trial, court disposition, sentence type, and minimum and maximum sentence length. Dates of disposition of each stage of the process allow for tracking of time spent at each stage.
Offense and sentencing characteristics for organizations sentenced in federal district courts.
Assessed the impact of Latino ethnicity on pretrial release decisions in large urban counties.
Initiated to learn more about the root causes of juvenile delinquency and other problem behaviors. Comprises 3 coordinated longitudinal studies: Denver Youth Survey, Pittsburgh Youth Study and Rochester Youth Development Study. The 3 projects used a similar research design. All of the projects were longitudinal investigations involving repeated contacts with youth during a substantial portion of their developmental years. Researchers conducted regular face-to-face interviews with inner-city youth considered at high-risk for involvement in delinquency and drug abuse. Multiple perspectives on each child's development and behavior were obtained through interviews with the child's primary caretaker and, in two sites, school teachers. Administrative data from official agencies, including police, schools and social services was also collected. The 3 research teams worked together to ensure that certain core measures were identical across the sites, including self-reported delinquency and drug use; community and neighborhood characteristics; youth, family and peer variables; and arrest and judicial processing histories.
Large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. It was designed to advance the understanding of the developmental pathways of both positive and negative human social behaviors. In particular, the project examined the causes and pathways of juvenile delinquency, adult crime, substance abuse, and violence. Also provides a detailed look at the environments in which these social behaviors take place by collecting substantial amounts of data about urban Chicago, including its people, institutions, and resources.
Examines several explanations for the observed racial/ethnic disparities in drug arrests, the consequences of drug arrest on subsequent drug offending and social bonding, and whether these consequences vary by race/ethnicity. The study is a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97).
Derived from a content analysis of the The Religious Freedom Reporter (the Reporter), which is a journal published monthly by the Church-State Resource Center of the Norman Adrian Wiggins School of Law, Campbell University. The journal dates back to January 1981 and, as stated in the introductory preface to each issue, "seeks to provide comprehensive coverage of pending and decided cases, new legislation and regulations, law review articles and other resources related to religious freedom." Includes information from all levels of the judiciary. Has information on type of case (e.g., free exercise, first amendment and establishment), when the case was decided, level of court and the religion of the group or person who brought the case forward.
Multi-site, longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders as they transition from adolescence into early adulthood. Between November, 2000 and January, 2003, 1,354 adjudicated youths from the juvenile and adult court systems in Maricopa County (Phoenix), Arizona (N = 654) and Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania (N = 700) were enrolled into the study. The enrolled youth were at least 14 years old and under 18 years old at the time of their committing offense and were found guilty of a serious offense (predominantly felonies, with a few exceptions for some misdemeanor property offenses, sexual assault, or weapons offenses). Each study participant was followed for a period of seven years past enrollment, with the end result a comprehensive picture of life changes in a wide array of areas over the course of this time. Sought to inform the ongoing debate in the juvenile justice system regarding the treatment and processing of serious adolescent offenders. The larger aim of the Pathways series is to improve decision-making by court and social service personnel and to clarify policy debates about alternatives for serious adolescent offenders. Additional datasets from the Pathways study will be released during 2013. These datasets will include official records information (e.g. re-arrest, placement), and monthly life-calendar data on a range of topics (e.g. school, work). These additional datasets will not be publicly available, but rather made available through ICPSR's restricted data access system.
Collects extensive crime & safety data from principals & school administrators of United States public schools. Can be used to examine the relationship between school characteristics and violent and serious violent crimes in primary schools, middle schools, high schools, and combined schools. Can also be used to assess what crime prevention programs, practices, and policies are used by schools. SSOCS has been conducted in school years 1999-2000, 2003-2004, and 2005-2006. 2007-2008 is available direct on the NCES site. Also see the NCES Bibliography for literature that has used this data.
International collaborative study of delinquency and victimization of 12 to 15 year-old students in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade classrooms. School-based study that drew on random samples from either city level or national level. In general, the cross-national description of the prevalence and incidence of delinquent behavior allowed for the assessment of national crime rates by comparison with the crime rates of other countries. The study was conducted in 31 mostly European countries, the United States, Caribbean and South American countries. The primary research questions explored included: Is juvenile delinquency normal, ubiquitous, and transitional? Is there a pattern of similarity in the offending behavior of juveniles across countries or are there any important differences? Descriptive comparisons of crime rates will call for explanations, especially if differences are observed. What are the national socio-economic or cultural differences, or the characteristics of legal or criminal policies that can explain such differences?
Guide to tables and sources for criminal justice and crime in the United States.
Undertaken to determine whether accurate and comprehensive pretrial data can be collected at the local level and subsequently aggregated at the state and federal levels. The data contained in this collection provide a picture of felony defendants' movements through the criminal courts. Offenses were recoded into 14 broad categories that conform to the Bureau of Justice Statistics' crime definitions. Other variables include sex, race, age, prior record, relationship to criminal justice system at the time of the offense, pretrial release, detention decisions, court appearances, pretrial rearrest, adjudication, and sentencing. The unit of analysis is the defendant. Formerly National Pretrial Reporting Program (1988-1993).
Provides comparable measures of state appellate and trial court caseloads by type of case for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Court caseloads are tabulated according to generic reporting categories developed by the Court Statistics Project (CSP) Committee of the Conference of State Court Administrators. These categories describe differences in the unit of count and the point of count when compiling each court's caseload. Major areas of investigation include (1) case filings in state appellate and trial courts, (2) case processing and dispositions in state appellate and trial courts, and (3) appellate opinions. The trial caseload consists of civil, domestic relations, criminal, juvenile, and traffic violation cases. The appellate caseload consists of appeal by right, appeal by permission, death penalty, and original proceeding/other appellate matter cases.
In 1995, to determine the nature of law enforcement services provided on campus, the Bureau of Justice Statistics surveyed 4-year institutions of higher education in the United States with 2,500 or more students. Describes nearly 600 of these campus law enforcement agencies in terms of their personnel, expenditures and pay, operations, equipment, computers and information systems, policies, and special programs. Based on the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics program, which collected similar data from a national sample of state and local law enforcement agencies. Follow-ups were conducted in 2004/2005 and 2011/2012.
Household survey of the criminal justice experiences of United States adults ages 18-64. Measures capture supervision (e.g. probation, jail, and prison) and broader experiences such as arrests and convictions. Researchers are able to estimate 12-month and life-time prevalence rates of respondents' criminal justice experiences. Data were collected between May 8, 2013 and May 20, 2013. A random sample of 5,278 individuals aged 18-64 were selected from the KnowledgePanel and 3,260 participated in the survey. Along with the main survey variables, standard demographic variables, a series of data processing variables created by GfK, and a final sample weight are also included in the dataset. Demographic variables cover: age, race, sex, income, regions, education, marital status, employment status, and housing type.
Periodic nationwide assessments of reported crimes not available elsewhere in the criminal justice system. With the 1977 data, the title was expanded to Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data. Each year, participating law enforcement agencies contribute reports to the FBI either directly or through their state reporting programs. ICPSR archives the UCR data as 5 separate components: (1) summary data, (2) county-level data, (3) incident-level data (National Incident-Based Reporting System [NIBRS]), (4) hate crime data, and (5) various, mostly nonrecurring, data collections. Summary data are reported in four types of files: (a) Offenses Known and Clearances by Arrest, (b) Property Stolen and Recovered, (c) Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR), and (d) Police Employee (LEOKA) Data (Law Enforcement Officers Killed or Assaulted). County-level data provide counts of arrests and offenses aggregated to the county level. County populations are also reported. In the late 1970s, new ways to look at crime were studied. The UCR program was subsequently expanded to capture incident-level data with the implementation of the National Incident-Based Reporting System. The NIBRS data focus on various aspects of a crime incident. Gathering of hate crime data by the UCR program was begun in 1990. Hate crimes are defined as crimes that manifest evidence of prejudice based on race, religion, sexual orientation, or ethnicity. In September 1994, disabilities, both physical and mental, were added to the list. The 5th component of ICPSR's UCR holdings is comprised of various collections, many of which are nonrecurring and prepared by individual researchers. These collections go beyond the scope of the standard UCR collections provided by the FBI, either by including data for a range of years or by focusing on other aspects of analysis. Also see Missing Data in the Uniform Crime Reports, 1977-2000. Select data is also contained in Data-Planet Statistical Datasets.
Uses online newspaper archive articles to document all cases of shootings on church property within the United States from 1980-2005.
Examines how court decisions and sentencing policy changes have affected sentencing behavior in federal drug trafficking cases. Changes at the district level and in mandatory minimum sentencing were a particular focus. Data were obtained from the Defendants Sentenced Under the Sentencing Reform Act data from the United States Sentencing Commission from fiscal years 1992-2009. These data were then merged with federal district-level indicators for the 89 federal districts from the Federal Court Management Statistics website, and state level demographic data from the United States Census Bureau. Drug trafficking cases were identified by using the sentencing guideline offense, which resulted in a sample 0f N=376,637 cases.
Guide to data useful for the study of violence against women available from the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data at ICPSR.
Data down to the school district level.
This page last updated: October 21, 2009