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Finding Data: Data on Elections

ACCESS TO THESE DATA FILES ARE RESTRICTED TO CURRENTLY ENROLLED/EMPLOYED MEMBERS OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY.

  • Selected Resources for:

    Elections - Non USA ::

  • 2000 Florida Ballots Project
    In the United States presidential election of November 2000, approximately 180,000 ballots in Florida's 67 counties were uncertified because they failed to register a "valid" vote for president. These ballots included those in which no vote was recorded (undervotes) and those in which people voted for more than one candidate (overvotes). The 2000 Florida Ballots Project examined the undervotes and overvotes.

  • 2012 Latino Immigrant National Election Study
    Nationally representative telephone survey of Latino immigrants, the majority of whom were not U.S. citizens. It was administered in 2 waves. One survey wave was conducted during the fall campaign (N = 853); and a follow-up wave took place immediately after the election (N = 437 respondents from the pre-election survey plus 451 fresh respondents, for a total of 888). The questionnaire instrumentation used in the study was largely adapted from item wordings in the 2012 American National Election Study (ANES). The survey focuses on immigrant civic engagement and political socialization, including items on immigrant attitudes, opinions and electoral and non-electoral political behavior.

  • Aggregate Dynamics of Campaigns
    Daily interactions between partisan elites, the media, and citizens are the driving dynamic of election campaigns and the central determinant of their outcomes. Accordingly, we develop a theory of campaign dynamics that departs from previous top-down models of campaign effects in its emphasis on the reciprocal campaign interactions between these actors. We examine these interactions with daily data on campaign expenditures, media coverage, and voter support in the 2000 presidential campaign.

  • American National Election Studies (ANES)
    Oldest continuous series of survey data investigating electoral behavior and attitudes in the United States. The focus includes voter perceptions of the major political parties, the candidates, national and international issues, and of the importance of the election. Also explored are voter expectations about the outcome of the election, degree of voter interest in politics, political affiliation and voting history, as well as participation in the electoral process. ANES interviews are conducted before and after presidential elections and after national congressional elections. Post-election interviews include questions on actual voting behavior and voter reflections about the election outcome. See the Help Center for overviews. Also available through ICPSR.

  • Baltimore mayoral election by precinct and ward: Primary general Election results. (1999, 2003, 2004, 2007)

  • Baltimore mayoral election by precinct and ward: General election results. (1999, 2004, 2007)

  • Campaign Finance in Local Elections: An Eleven City Study, 1989-2007
    Contains campaign finance data for candidates in local elections held from 1989 to 2007 in the following cities: New York City (NY), Los Angeles (CA), Chicago (IL), San Francisco (CA), Seattle (WA), Miami (FL), Tampa (FL), Lexington (KY), Louisville (KY), Sacramento (CA), and Long Beach (CA). Data were also collected for the counties Hillsborough County/Tampa (FL) and Miami-Dade (FL). Includes data on funds raised and spent, as well as candidate data and election returns, and both mayoral and city council races. Information was also collected on the size of the population of the candidates jurisdiction, the amount of political contributions and committee expenditures, whether the election was held in a publicly-funded city, and the outcome of the election. Demographic variables include candidate's sex, race, political party, education, and occupation.

  • Capturing Campaign Dynamics: The National Annenberg Election Survey (2000, 2004, 2008)
    The Annenberg 2000 Survey was the largest survey of the American electorate ever conducted. By the end of 2000, over 100,000 interviews were completed on Americans' political knowledge, media use, and opinions about candidates and issues. The large sample size enables analysis of groups that would be too small to measure confidently in ordinary election polls. Another key feature of the NAES is its use of the rolling cross sectional methodology, that allows the identification of trends and points of change in the public's reactions to political events as they unfold over the course of the election. For more information, see the NAES website.

  • CCES - Cooperative Congressional Election Study
    50,000+ person national stratified sample survey administered by YouGov/Polimetrix. Half of the questionnaire consists of Common Content asked of all 50,000+ people, and half of the questionnaire consists of Team Content designed by each individual participating team and asked of a subset of 1,000 people. In addition, several teams may pool their resources to create Group Content. Consists of 2 waves in election years. In the pre-election phase, respondents answer 2/3 of the questionnaire. This segment of the survey asks about general political attitudes, various demographic factors, assessment of roll call voting choices, and political information. The pre-election phase is administered late September to late October and rolled out in three distinct time-periods, the end of September, the middle of October, and the end of October. Spacing of interviews across these intervals allows researchers to gauge the effects of campaign information and events on the state and district electorates. In the post-election phase, respondents answer the other third of the questionnaire, mostly consisting of items related to the election that just occurred. The post-election phase is administered in November. In non-election years, the survey consists of a single wave conducted in the early fall.

  • Collaborative Multi-racial Post-election Survey (CMPS), 2008
    National telephone survey of registered voters, with comparably large samples of African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Whites. The telephone survey, conducted between November 9, 2008 and January 5, 2009, is the first multiracial and multilingual survey of registered voters across multiple states and regions in a presidential election. In contrast to the 2008 American National Election Study (ANES) which oversampled Black and Latino voters, and was available in Spanish, the CMPS was available in 6 languages and contains robust samples of the four largest racial/ethnic groups: Whites, Latinos, Blacks, Asians. Contains 4,563 respondents who registered to vote in the November 2008 election and who self-identified as Asian, Black, Latino, and White. The survey was available in English, Spanish, Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, Vietnamese and respondents were offered the opportunity to interview in their language of choice. The 6 states that were sampled to produced robust samples of all 4 major racial groups include California, Texas, New York, Florida, Illinois, and New Jersey, and the statewide samples range from 243 to 669 cases. In order to arrive at more nationally representative samples of each minority group, the study added 2 supplemental states per racial group, including Arizona and New Mexico (Latinos), North Carolina and Georgia (Blacks), Hawaii and Washington (Asians). Of these 12 states, 3 were considered political battlegrounds in the 2008 Presidential electorate -- New Mexico, Florida, and North Carolina. In order to examine multi-racial politics in competitive and non-competitive environments, the study supplemented the sample with six additional diverse battleground states: Colorado, Michigan, Nevada, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. As of the 2008 election, two-thirds of the national electorate was concentrated in these 18 states. For Latinos, 92 percent of all registered voters reside in these states; 87 percent of Asian Americans; and 66 percent of Blacks, and 61 percent of Whites. The November 2008 CMPS provides estimates of the registered voter population by race, age, gender, and education level which was applied to the sample, by racial group, so that the distributions match those of the Census on these important demographic categories. In the study, there are 51 items dealing with sociopolitical attitudes, mobilization and political activity. Additionally, there are 21 items that capture demographic information, including: age, ancestry, birthplace, education, ethnicity, marital status, number in the household, religiosity, gender, media usage and residential context.

  • Community College Civic Outcomes Survey, Spring 2015
    Examines the individual & institutional factors associated with greater civic agency, capacity, behavior, and knowledge among college students. In Spring 2015, two surveys were digitally administered at 9 community colleges. These 9 colleges were purposively selected for diversity in terms of geography, campus setting, size, and the racial and ethnic composition of their student bodies. Administered to students, and included questions related to voting, political and community engagement, civic knowledge, and leadership development. The Institutional Questionnaire (IQ), was admitted to each college's liaisons to The Democracy Commitment (TDC), and included questions related to college-level factors known to influence student engagement. These questions assessed for institutional intentionality towards civic engagement through college missions and strategic planning, as well as academic and faculty focus on civic involvement. Both instruments were previously tested in a small regional pilot and were subsequently refined to allow for greater response variability. Demographic variables include race, income, gender, and enrollment status.

  • Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES)
    Collaborative program of cross-national research among election studies conducted in over fifty states. The CSES is composed of three tightly linked parts: First, a common module of public opinion survey questions is included in each participant country's post-election study. These "micro" level data include vote choice, candidate and party evaluations, current and retrospective economic evaluations, evaluation of the electoral system itself, in addition to standardized sociodemographic measures. Second, district level data are reported for each respondent, including electoral returns, turnout, and the number of candidates. Finally, system or "macro" level data report aggregate electoral returns, electoral rules and formulas, and regime characteristics.

    Covers the United States as well as a number of European democracies, some in Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia.

  • Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA)
    Repository of detailed results - including votes received by each candidate/party, total votes cast, number of eligible voters, and seat figures where available - at a constituency level for the lower house legislative elections that have been conducted around the world. The dataset and documentation currently include 1,720 elections from 142 countries. Future releases are being planned that will include more countries & additional elections. Data available in SAS, STATA, SPSS, and raw data formats.

  • Convention Delegate Study Series (1972-2000)
    Gathers information on the careers and political perspectives of the delegates to the Democratic and Republican National Conventions. It furnishes data on their life histories, political participation and affiliations, and attitudes towards certain issues.

  • Cross-National Indicators of Liberal Democracy (1950-1990)
    Collection of crossnational measures of political democracy containing over 800 variables for most of the world's independent countries. Political, social, and economic measures are available in the data file, and topics include adult suffrage, civil liberties, political rights, the openness, fairness, and competitiveness of the electoral process, executive and legislative selection and effectiveness, political party legitimacy, political participation, limitations on the executive branch of the government, level of democratization, economic openness, constitutional development, government legitimacy, and the outlook for freedom. A series of variables focuses on freedom and barriers to freedom, including freedom of peaceful assembly and association, mail censorship, women's rights, freedom of information and technology, freedom of political opposition, and freedom of the press. Compulsory membership in state organizations and political parties and compulsory religion in schools are addressed as well.

  • Current Population Survey, November: Voter Registration Supplement
    Largest samples available for research on voter registration and turnout.

  • Data on International Election Monitoring: Three Global Datasets on Election Quality, Election Events and International Election Observation
    Focuses on elections and election monitoring throughout the world. Dataset 1, Data on International Election Monitoring (DIEM), codes the assessement and activities of international election monitoring organizations to national-level legislative and presidential elections in 108 countries from 1980-2004. Dataset 2, Quality of Elections Data (QED), codes the quality of national-level legislative and presidential elections in 172 countries from 1978 to 2004. Dataset 3, Supplementary Election Data, includes supplementary information on all direct presidential and legislative elections in 182 countries from 1975-2004.

  • Database on Ideology, Money in Politics, and Elections (DIME)
    Intended as a general resource for the study of campaign finance and ideology in American politics. Developed as part of the project on Ideology in the Political Marketplace, which is an on-going effort to conduct a comprehensive ideological mapping of political elites, interest groups, and donors using the common-space Cfscore scaling methodology (Bonica 2013). Constructing the database required a large-scale effort to compile, clean, and process data on contribution records, candidate characteristics, and election outcomes from various sources. The resulting database contains over 100 million political contributions made by individuals and organizations to local, state, and federal elections spanning a period from 1979 to 2012. A corresponding database of candidates and committees provides additional information on state and federal elections.

  • Dave Leip's Atlas
    Party election data by state, congressional district, county, and town for the U.S. House of Representative Elections (1992-2016). Voter registration and turnout data for all 50 states, counties, and New England towns (1992-2016). Presidential primary data at the state, county, and town level (2000-2016). Presidential election data at the county level (1992-2016). United States Senate election data at the county level (1990-2016). Governor's Elections at the county level (1990-2016). In addition the web version contains senatorial and gubernatorial election results by state and party back to 1990 and Presidential back to 1789.

  • Election Resources on the Internet
    International coverage with results available for download in CSV format for 21 major (mostly European) countries. Also includes up to date information about the electoral system and political parties of each country.

  • Federal Election Commission
    Detailed data on campaign contributions and expenditures by candidates, parties, and committees.

  • Global Elections Database (1945-2007)
    Includes election results for over 1,000 elections, which have occurred in more than 60 countries around the world between 1945-2006 at the constituency- or district-level of government. Together these elections total over 40,000 electoral districts and include legislative elections for lower and upper houses at the national level of government. Incorporates a number of sub-national elections as well. Results include vote and seat data for all parties that participate in an election even if they win only a single vote. The total number of political parties in the dataset exceeds 3,000. Formerly known as the Constituency Level Election Dataset.

  • Intrade Presidential Election Prediction Data (2004, 2008, 2012)
    Prediction data for the 2004, 2008, and 2012 presidential elections from Intrade. Contains daily open, high, low, close, open interest, session trade volume, lifetime high, and lifetime low values for various predictions on a daily basis.

  • Latino National Political Survey, 1989-1990
    Measured the political attitudes and behaviors of three specific Latino groups in the United States: Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban. A non-Latino comparison group was also interviewed.

    Sample Size: 3415 Total: 2817 Latinos (1546 Mexican, 589 Puerto Rican, 682 Cuban), 598 non-Latinos

    Citation:
    Latino National Political Survey, 1989-1990 (Electronic File)
    Principal investigator: Rodolfo de la Garza, Angelo Falcon, F. Chris Garcia, John A. Garcia
    Producer: Philadelphia, PA: Temple University, Institute for Social Research
    Distributor: Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
    Version: 3rd ICPSR version

  • Latino National Survey (2006)
    Contains 8,634 completed interviews (unweighted) of self-identified Latino/Hispanic residents of the United States. Interviewing began on November 17, 2005, and continued through August 4, 2006. Contained approximately 165 distinct items ranging from demographic descriptions to political attitudes and policy preferences, as well as a variety of social indicators and experiences. All interviewers were bilingual, English and Spanish. Demographic variables include age, ancestry, birthplace, education level, ethnicity, marital status, military service, number of people in the household, number of children under the age of 18 living in the household, political party affiliation, political ideology, religiosity, religious preference, race, and sex. Also see the Latino National Survey (LNS) Focus Group Data, 2006.

  • Latino National Survey (LNS)--New England, 2006
    New England extension of the Latino National Survey, which was conducted in 2005-2006. The Latino National Survey (LNS)--New England contains 1,200 completed interviews (unweighted) of self-identified Latino/Hispanic residents of the United States. The questionnaire is the same as that used in the original LNS. Interviewing began on November 17, 2005, and continued through August 4, 2006. Contained approximately 165 distinct items ranging from demographic descriptions to political attitudes and policy preferences, as well as a variety of social indicators and experiences. All interviewers were bilingual, English and Spanish. Demographic variables include age, ancestry, birthplace, education level, ethnicity, marital status, military service, number of people in the household, number of children under the age of 18 living in the household, political party affiliation, political ideology, religiosity, religious preference, race, and sex.

  • Lijphart Elections Archive
    Static research collection of district level election results for approximately 350 national legislative elections in 26 countries that was maintained through 2003.

  • Manifesto Project Database
    Deals with different aspects of political party performance as well as the structure and development of party systems. Based on quantitative content analyses of parties' election programs from more than 50 countries covering all free, democratic elections since 1945.

  • Millennial Values and Voter Engagement Survey, 2012
    Follow-up panel study to the Millennial Values Survey (April 2012) and included 1,214 younger Millennials (ages 18-25) who were part of the first study and were re-contacted. The survey, conducted in late August and early September, included questions on voter engagement, parental influence on voting behavior, and support for affirmative action policies. The original survey was conducted among a random sample of college-age Millennials (ages 18-24) and included questions about political priorities, political candidates and the 2012 election. The original survey also measured views about religious groups, and Christianity in particular, and covered other political topics ranging from economic inequality, the role of government and pluralism.

  • National Black Election Studies
    Large-scale academic survey of the political attitudes and voting behavior of Black Americans. Conducted in 1984, 1988, and 1996. The 1984 and 1988 surveys were longitudinal in nature.

    Sample Size: Pre-election: 1984-1,150; 1988-473; 1996-1,216. Post-election: 1984-872; 1988-392; 1996-854.

  • National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) Election Legislation Databases (2001+)
    NCSL provides 2 databases of state-level election reform legislation.

  • National Directory of Latino Elected Officials (2005-2016)
    Covers federal, state, county, municipal, and other local elected officials. Provides contact information for each official, a statistical portrait of the Latino elected officials in each state, and an alphabetical index of each official in the Directory, which indicates their state, level of office and the page number on which they appear. The directory for each year is also available as an Excel database and includes fields for level of office, term expiration, party, and gender.

  • National Election Day Exit Polls
    Consist of presidential and/or congressional vote questions in addition to questions on gubernatorial races, important issues affecting the vote decision, presidential approval and a number of current national issues. With the exception of the 1972 CBS News Exit Poll, all include basic demographic variables such as gender, race, education, income, and age, among others.

    Sample Size: Usually range from 8,000 to 20,000 voters, with the largest samples coming from the 1986 and 1988 ABC News Exit Polls which consist of over 50,000 interviews.

  • National Elections Across Democracy and Autocracy
    Provides detailed information on all election events from 1960-2006. To be included, elections must be for a national executive figure, such as a president, or for a national legislative body, such as a parliament, legislature, constituent assembly, or other directly elected representative bodies. In order for an election to be included, voters must directly elect the person or persons appearing on the ballot to the national post in question.

  • National Politics Study (NPS) (2004)
    Comparative data about individuals' political attitudes, beliefs, aspirations, and behaviors at the beginning of the 21st century. Explored the nature of political involvement and participation among individuals from different racial and ethnic groups. Included questions about voting preferences, party affiliation, organizational membership, immigration, racial consciousness, religion, acculturation, and views of government policies.

  • National Politics Study, 2008
    The 2008 election offers a rare opportunity to analyze a significant event in American history - the election of the first African American president. Because the longitudinal panel series began in 2004, prior to the emergence of President Obama as a serious political candidate and nominee, the results from these surveys provide a rare vehicle for comparing data over time on important demographic, political, and, of particular interest given President Obama's racial background, racial and ethnic issues related to vote choice and political behavior. Topics covered include: demographic information of the population, work status, home ownership, political ideology, party identification, presidential choice, race relations, feeling thermometer data for a variety of political figures and relevant groups or organizations, and current events such as the Iraq War and same-sex marriage. Because differences among the racial and ethnic groups surveyed in this study are of political significance (Whites, African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and Caribbean Blacks), much of the data presented here is disaggregated by racial and ethnic group.

  • Party Strength in the United States: 1872-1996
    Contains a set of index numbers that can be used as measures of party strength at the polls and changes in party strength. Consists of statewide percentages of the actual vote won by Democratic, Republican, and other candidates/parties for the offices of president, governor, United States House of Representatives, and, beginning in 1914, the 2 Senate seats allocated to each state. The percentages for the Senate seats are designated according to the Senate class (I, II, or III) to which the particular race refers. Data are also presented for the presidential, gubernatorial, and senatorial vote percentages in biennial form, as achieved by averaging the percentages from the previous and following election. Sets of composite percentages are included as well: one set of composite numbers combines the data for all four offices, a second set combines the data for the three offices other than president, and a third set combines the data for senators and representatives in Congress. Biennial office data and composite data are also included for aggregate groupings of states. Regional data are provided for states grouped as Northeast, Middle West, South, and West. In addition, states are grouped based on party competitiveness between 1896 and 1930 as either predominantly Republican, predominantly Democratic, or competitive. Biennial office data and composite indices are also included for the nation as a whole.

  • Perceptions of Electoral Integrity
    A new expert survey of Perceptions of Electoral Integrity designed to provide a comprehensive, impartial, and independent source of information about whether national elections meet internationally-recognized standards.

  • Pew Hispanic Center
    The Pew Hispanic Center is a non-partisan research organization. Its mission is to improve understanding of the U.S. Hispanic population and to chronicle Latinos' growing impact on the United States.

  • Pew Hispanic Center Survey of Mexicans Living in the U.S. on Absentee Voting in Mexican Elections
    Interviews were conducted from January 16 - February 6, 2006 among a representative sample of 987 Mexican respondents age 18 and older. A total of 62 are registered to vote and 922 are not registered to vote.

  • Polidata Presidential Election Results. (Congressional District (103rd-115th Congress) (1992-2016 elections)) (County or Equivalent 1976-2004)
    Election results by political party by congressional district and county or equivalent.

  • Political Events Project, 1948-1965
    Contains data on 6,754 political instability events in 84 selected nations in the period 1948-1965. These data, which permit measurement of political instability and the correlates of internal conflict behavior, are concerned with conflict directed by groups and individuals in the prevailing political system against other groups or persons, and with uncovering the determinants of stability within all national political systems. The variables in the dataset are divided into four basic types: variables that identify events, classify events, describe events, and evaluate events. The study provides a conflict intensity rating for each event. Political instability events are classified from low to high and include institutionally prescribed elections, the fall of cabinets, martial laws, assassinations of significant group leaders, mass arrests, coup d'etats, and civil wars.

  • Politics Research Guide. Election data below the constituency level.
    Research guide to election statistics at low levels of geography for Australia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Europe, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States.

  • Politics Research Guide. U.S. Elections
    Research guide to U.S. Elections and state sources.

  • Public Mapping Project
    Includes redistricting data for the United States.

  • Race, Class, and Culture Survey 2012
    Nationally-representative survey of 2,501 Americans with a focus on the role of race and class and its intersection with religion and politics, including extensive analysis of white working-class Americans. One important contribution of this project is the development of a parsimonious and replicable definition of white working class Americans. Highlights the significant divides among white working-class Americans along the lines of region, religion, gender, and age. Questions were asked about voting behavior, candidate favorability, the economy and inequality, view of government, perspectives on America, discrimination and diversity, and social issues (including same-sex marriage, abortion, and the environment).

  • Record of American Democracy (ROAD) 1984-1990
    Includes election returns, socioeconomic summaries, and demographic measures of the American public at unusually low levels of geographic aggregation ("precinct" level). Covers every state in the country from 1984 through 1990 (including some off-year elections).

  • Referenda and Primary Election Data (1968-1990)
    Includes election returns at the county and state levels for primary and general elections on statewide referenda, constitutional amendments, state House and Senate joint resolutions, and initiated measures. Also documents county-level returns for most gubernatorial, senatorial, and congressional primary elections.

  • Rutgers-Eagleton Poll (1971+)
    New Jersey poll reporting attitudes about candidates, politics, public policy, the economy, and social trends.

  • State Legislative Election Returns in the United States (1967-2010)
    Election returns at the district, county, constituency, and candidate levels for state legislative races contested in all 50 states in the United States. Included also are special election returns, when provided as part of the official returns for the states and primary election returns for 16 southern and border states.

  • United States Elections Project (1984+)
    Information source for the United States electoral system. Mission is to provide timely and accurate election statistics, electoral laws, research reports, and other useful information regarding the United States electoral system. Includes turnout rates and early vote turnout.

  • United States General Election Exit Poll Series
    Conducted by consortium of major media organizations, largest samples available for voting behavior, but limited set of variables compared to National Election Studies. Covers 1994-2008. Earlier exit polls dating back to 1976 are available from ICPSR or the Roper Center.

  • United States Historical Election Returns (1788-1990)
    Consists of several discrete datasets that contain county- and state-level returns for all elections to the offices of president, governor, United States senator, and United States representative.

  • United States Presidential Inaugural Addresses, 1789-2009
    Includes the Inaugural Addresses of United States Presidents from George Washington in 1789 to Barack Obama in 2009.

  • United States Presidential Primary Exit Poll Series (2000+)
    Conducted by the National Election Pool (NEP) from results obtained from interviews of a sample of voters exiting polling places in those states that hold political party presidential primaries or caucuses on their respective primary days. Provides data on voters' choices in the primaries and on the issues and factors that most influenced those votes, as well as their opinions on presidential candidates, and other social issues. The data consist of individual state primary exit polls.

  • United States Presidential Televised Debates of the 20th Century
    Transcripts of United States presidential and vice presidential televised debates of the twentieth century. Includes general election debates among candidates from 1960 to 1996.

  • Voter Registration in the United States (1968-1988) from ICPSR
    Voter registration data from state governments.

  • Voter Turnout Data
    Voter turnout data from 1976-2004 by state (CA, FL, IL, IN, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, WA), county, city, zip code, census tract, census block, congressional district, senate district, legislative district, and other voting districts. Includes some socio-economic variables.

  • Women in Parliament, 1945-2003: Cross-National Dataset
    Information on women's inclusion in parliamentary bodies in over 150 countries from 1945 to 2003. Allows for extensive, large-scale, cross-national investigation of the factors that explain women's attainment of political power over time and provides educators with comprehensive international and historical information on women in a variety of political positions. Information is provided on female suffrage, the first female member of parliament, yearly percentages of women in parliaments, when women reached important representational milestones, such as 10 %, 20 %, and 30 % of a legislature, and when women achieved highly-visible political positions, such as prime minister, president, or head of parliament.

This page last updated: October 21, 2009