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Finding Data: Data on Brazil

ACCESS TO THESE DATA FILES ARE RESTRICTED TO CURRENTLY ENROLLED/EMPLOYED MEMBERS OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY.

  • "Census Microdata Holdings"
    Table listing microdata from international censuses either available at Princeton University or publicly accesible. Note that many are restricted and require permission from the national government to use.

  • Acesso e Utilizacao de Servicos de Saude (2003)
    Macrodata on access and use of health services for Brazil.

  • Aggregate Data Bank and Indices of Brazil (1940-1960)
    Contains data on the social, economic, and population characteristics of 22 states of Brazil in 1940, 1950, and 1960. For each of the three time periods, data are provided on the total population in urban and rural areas, industrial and commercial employment, and rural employment. Information is also provided on the literate population, eligible electorate, and actual voting electorate. The data ascertain the numbers of industrial and commercial establishments as well as membership in various unions, in art and literary associations, in sports organizations, in charitable organizations, and in Roman Catholic organizations.

  • America Latina y el Caribe. Balanza de Pagos, 1980-2005
    Balance of payments data from CEPAL for Latin America and the Caribbean.

  • America's Barometer (2004+)
    Public opinion data for Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Once in the database click on "Enter site via IP authentication" then online data analysis. Click on either Beginner or Expert and then choose your database.

  • Anuario Estatistico do Brasil (1996-2014)
    Statistical yearbook for Brazil. 1908+ is in paper format (Firestone HA971 .A36). 1936, 1941/45; 1950; 1966 available on microfiche - MICROFICHE 418. 1970+ can also be found in Current National Statistical Compendiums. Located in Microforms (A floor). PDF versions back to 1908 can be found on the IBGE site.

  • Anuario estatistico, Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. (1995-1997)
    Statistical yearbook for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Also in paper. 1990-1991-1993/94, 1998. (ANNEX A) HA989.R6 A58

  • Arms Transfers to Developing Countries, 1945-1968
    Data on the transfer of arms to 52 developing nations. The Arms Transfers data (Part 1) provide information on donor and recipient, date and site of transfer, quantity, system classification (e.g., aircraft, helicopters, missiles, artilleries, small arms, or naval systems), and date production began and ended. The Weapons Systems data (Part 2) contain detailed coded information about each weapons system.

  • As Entidades de Assistencia Social Privadas sem Fins Lucrativos no Brasil (2006)
    Private social assistance statistics for Brazil.

  • Brazil - Municipal Tax and Formalization Data for Minas Gerais 2008-2012

  • Brazil - Surveys of Informal Firms in Belo Horizonte 2011-2012

  • Brazil Religion Survey, 2007
    Examines religious affiliation, belief, and practice, demographic factors, and views on social issues (divorce, euthanasia, abortion, homosexuality, etc.) in Brazil.

  • Brazilian Elites, 1960
    Biographical information for approximately 1,000 prominent Brazilians in the early 1960s. Demographic variables provide information on age, sex, marital status, city and state of birth and residence, number of children, education, and profession. Additional variables provide information on the size of the city of birth and residence, the number of different occupations or professions, and foreign contacts, including evidence of foreign travels.

  • Brazilian Public Use Micro Samples (PUMS 1%) (1970)
    Documentation located at (DSS) HA974 1970.A467

  • Brazilian Survey on Nutrition and Health, 1989
    Provides information on various measures of nutrition & health including anthropometric measures, health conditions, access to public health services, food supplementation, and obstetrical data. Evaluation of nutritional conditions is based upon measures of weight and height. Demographic and socioeconomic variables included cover population, housing conditions, level of education, household income, and occupation.

  • CEAP data
    Survey of racial and other social attitudes in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. As the Program Officer with the Ford Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Edward Telles was responsible for funding both the CEAP and PESB 2000 data collection projects.

  • Committee to Protect Journalists
    Provides data on journalists killed, imprisoned, exiled, or missing. Also includes attacks on the press.

  • Comparative Agendas Project
    Assembles and codes information on the policy processes of governments from around the world. Currently includes Australia, Belgium, Denmark, European Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the United States (along with Florida and Pennsylvania) and the United Kingdom. Forthcoming: Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Israel. Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Russia, Turkey.

  • Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES)
    Collaborative program of cross-national research among election studies conducted in over fifty states. The CSES is composed of three tightly linked parts: First, a common module of public opinion survey questions is included in each participant country's post-election study. These "micro" level data include vote choice, candidate and party evaluations, current and retrospective economic evaluations, evaluation of the electoral system itself, in addition to standardized sociodemographic measures. Second, district level data are reported for each respondent, including electoral returns, turnout, and the number of candidates. Finally, system or "macro" level data report aggregate electoral returns, electoral rules and formulas, and regime characteristics.

    Covers the United States as well as a number of European democracies, some in Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia.

  • Comparative Survey of Freedom, 1972-1976
    Contains information gathered in 5 annual surveys that assessed the degree of freedom in 218 nations and dependencies. Was carried out under the auspices of Freedom House, New York City. The number of cases with data varies from year to year, due to annexation, amalgamation, or the addition of further territories to the roster. Data includes assessments of the political and civil rights of the general population (using a seven-point scale, i.e., 1, most freedom, to 7, least freedom), an overall freedom rating for the country (using a three-point scale, i.e, free, partly free, and not free), and the direction in which this rating appeared to be moving. Surveys after 1972 have added variables that indicate whether a change in the evaluation since the previous survey was due to internal events in the country or to new information about existing conditions. Before 1973, only the presence or absence of change is noted. Thereafter, an increase in the number of coding categories enables the direction of the change to be recorded. The 1976 data include 4 additional variables applicable to 142 cases and provide information about the system of government and the economy of most of the nations studied.

  • Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA)
    Repository of detailed results - including votes received by each candidate/party, total votes cast, number of eligible voters, and seat figures where available - at a constituency level for the lower house legislative elections that have been conducted around the world. The dataset and documentation currently include 1,720 elections from 142 countries. Future releases are being planned that will include more countries & additional elections. Data available in SAS, STATA, SPSS, and raw data formats.

  • Correlates of War (1816+)
    Quantitative data useful for studying international relations. Also includes war within political entities.

  • Country Memberships in Selected Intergovernmental Organizations and Accession to Selected Regional and Global Treaty Regimes: Global, Country-Year Format, 1955-2010
    Listing of organizational memberships by country and year.

  • Coups d'Etat 1946-2016
    Event list includes successful, attempted, plotted, and alleged coup events reported in Keesings Record of World Events (Keesings Online) and other sources; successful coups are cross-referenced to the Polity IV data series to distinguish "adverse regime changes" from "autocratic coups"; also listed in the codebook are cases of leadership change that are not considered coups (e.g., assassinations, ouster by foreign forces, victory by rebel forces).

  • Cross-National Indicators of Liberal Democracy (1950-1990)
    Collection of crossnational measures of political democracy containing over 800 variables for most of the world's independent countries. Political, social, and economic measures are available in the data file, and topics include adult suffrage, civil liberties, political rights, the openness, fairness, and competitiveness of the electoral process, executive and legislative selection and effectiveness, political party legitimacy, political participation, limitations on the executive branch of the government, level of democratization, economic openness, constitutional development, government legitimacy, and the outlook for freedom. A series of variables focuses on freedom and barriers to freedom, including freedom of peaceful assembly and association, mail censorship, women's rights, freedom of information and technology, freedom of political opposition, and freedom of the press. Compulsory membership in state organizations and political parties and compulsory religion in schools are addressed as well.

  • Cross-national Nonstandard Work Data
    Country-level dataset with indicators of part-time work and other forms of nonstandard employment based on a sample of 50 countries between 2000 and 2010. The original sources for this dataset include the OECD, Eurostat, International Social Survey Programee, and ESS.

  • Cross-National Statistics on the Causes of Death (1966-1974)
    Demographic statistics for the populations of 125 countries or areas throughout the world. Units of analysis are both country and data year. Includes statistics on approximately 50 types of causes of death for males, females, and total populations.

  • Cross-National Time-Series Data Archive
    Covers economic, social, and political indicators of nations and empires of the world, including countries and empires that no longer exist. Select data goes back to 1815. Not all indicators are available for all countries or in all years (even years in which the country existed). Often referred to as Bank's Cross National Time Series.

  • Data Bank of Assassinations (1948-1967)
    Data on 409 assassination events that occurred in 84 countries. Covers plotted, attempted, or actual assassinations of prominent public figures, such as top government officeholders and military figures, leaders of large trade unions or religious movements, and leaders of minority groups. For each event, information is provided on the country, date, and location of occurrence, the issue involved, the identity of the assassin and of the target, such as the type of group to which the assassin belonged and the political and social position of the target, and the outcome of the event.

  • Data Folha Survey of Racial Attitudes of 1995
    Survey of racial attitudes and perceptions in Brazil.

  • Data on International Election Monitoring: Three Global Datasets on Election Quality, Election Events and International Election Observation
    Focuses on elections and election monitoring throughout the world. Dataset 1, Data on International Election Monitoring (DIEM), codes the assessement and activities of international election monitoring organizations to national-level legislative and presidential elections in 108 countries from 1980-2004. Dataset 2, Quality of Elections Data (QED), codes the quality of national-level legislative and presidential elections in 172 countries from 1978 to 2004. Dataset 3, Supplementary Election Data, includes supplementary information on all direct presidential and legislative elections in 182 countries from 1975-2004.

  • Demographic and Health Surveys
    Used to evaluate population, health, and nutrition programs. Provides national and sub-national data on family planning, maternal and child health, child survival, HIV/AIDS/sexually transmitted infections (STIs), infectious diseases, reproductive health and nutrition. Microdata is available free of charge by request. First check characteristics and sample sizes. See the model questionnaires and the recode manuals. Data is available for:
    • Afghanistan (2010, 2015)
    • Albania (2008/09)
    • Angola (2006/07, 2011, 2015/16)
    • Armenia (2000, 2005, 2010, 2015/16)
    • Azerbaijan (2006)
    • Bangladesh (1993/94, 1996/97, 1999-2001, 2004, 2007, 2011. 2014)
    • Benin (1996, 2001, 2006, 2011/12)
    • Bolivia (1989, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2008)
    • Botswana (1988) (restricted)
    • Brazil (1986, 1991, 1996)
    • Burkina Faso (1993, 1998/99. 2003, 2010)
    • Burundi (1987, 2010, 2012)
    • Cambodia (1998, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2014)
    • Cameroon (1991, 1998, 2004, 2011)
    • Cape Verde (2005)
    • Central African Republic (1994/95)
    • Chad (1996/97, 2004, 2014/15)
    • Colombia (1986, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015)
    • Comoros (1996, 2012)
    • Congo (Brazzaville) (2005, 2009, 2011/12)
    • Congo Democratic Republic (2007, 2013/14)
    • Cote d'Ivoire (1994, 1998/99, 2005, 2011/12)
    • Dominican Republic (1986, 1991, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2007, 2013)
    • Ecuador (1987)
    • Egypt (1988, 1992, 1995-1997, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2008, 2014, 2015)
    • El Salvador (1985)
    • Eritrea (1995, 2002) (restricted)
    • Ethiopia (2000, 2005, 2011, 2016)
    • Gabon (2000, 2012)
    • Gambia (2013]
    • Ghana (1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2007-2008, 2014)
    • Guatemala (1987, 1995, 1998/99, 2014/15)
    • Guinea (1999, 2005, 2012)
    • Guyana (2005, 2009)
    • Haiti (1994/95, 2000, 2005/06, 2012, 2013)
    • Honduras (2005/06, 2011/12)
    • India (19992/93, 1998/99, 2005/06)
    • Indonesia (1987, 1991, 1994, 1997, 2002-2003, 2007, 2012)
    • Jordan (1990, 1997, 2002, 2007, 2009, 2012)
    • Kazakhstan (1995, 1999)
    • Kenya (1989, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008/09, 2014)
    • Kyrgyz Republic (1997, 2012)
    • Lesotho (2004, 2009, 2014)
    • Liberia (1986, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013)
    • Madagascar (1992, 1997, 2003/04, 2008/09, 2011, 2013)
    • Malawi (1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2010, 2012-2016)
    • Maldives (2009)
    • Mali (1987, 1995/96, 2001, 2006, 2010, 2013)
    • Mauritania (2000/01, 2003/04) (restricted)
    • Mexico (1987)
    • Moldova (2005)
    • Morocco (1987, 1992, 1995, 2003/04)
    • Mozambique (1997, 2003, 2009, 2011)
    • Myanmar (2015/2016)
    • Namibia (1992, 2000, 2006/07, 2013)
    • Nepal (1987, 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011, 2016)
    • Nicaragua (1998, 2001)
    • Niger (1992, 1998, 2006)
    • Nigeria (1990, 1999, 2003, 2008, 2010, 2013)
    • Nigeria (Ondo State) (1986)
    • Pakistan (1990/91, 2006/07, 2012/13)
    • Paraguay (1990)
    • Peru (1986, 1991/92, 1996, 2000, 2004-2012)
    • Philippines (1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2013)
    • Rwanda (1992, 2000, 2005, 2007/08, 2010, 2011, 2013, 2014/15)
    • Sao Tome and Principe (2008/09)
    • Senegal (1986, 1992/93, 1997, 1999, 2005, 2006, 2008/09, 2010/11, 2012/13, 2014-2016)
    • Sierra Leone (2008, 2013)
    • South Africa (1998)
    • Sri Lanka (1987)
    • Sudan (1989/90)
    • Swaziland (2006/07)
    • Tajikstan (2012)
    • Tanzania (1991/92, 1994, 1996, 1999, 2003-2005, 2007/08, 2010-2012, 2015/16)
    • Thailand (1987)
    • Timor Leste (2009)
    • Togo (1988, 1998, 2013/2014)
    • Trinidad and Tobago (1987)
    • Tunisia (1988)
    • Turkey (1993, 1998, 2003)
    • Turkmenistan (2000)
    • Uganda (1988/89, 1995/96, 2000/01, 2004/05 (restricted), 2006, 2009, 2011)
    • Ukraine (2007)
    • Uzbekistan (1996, 2002)
    • Vietnam (1997, 2002, 2005)
    • Yemen (1991/92, 1997(restricted), 2013)
    • Zambia (1992, 1996, 2001/02, 2007, 2013/14)
    • Zimbabwe (1988, 1994, 1999, 2005/06, 2010/11, 2015)
    DHS data are also available through the Minnesota Population Center's Integrated Demographic and Health Series. Registered DHS dataset users can create customized, pre-merged datasets. The current IDHS database includes a subset of variables related to women of childbearing age and incorporates data from 96 samples from 21 countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivorie, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

  • Determinants of Aid in the Post-Cold War Era
    Estimates the responsiveness of aid to recipient countries' economic and physical needs, civil/political rights, and government effectiveness. Looks exclusively at the post-Cold War era and use fixed effects to control for the political, strategic, and other considerations of donors. Finds that aid and per capita income have been negatively related, while aid has been positively related to infant mortality, rights, and government effectiveness.

  • Dynamics of Household Land Use and Economic Welfare on the Amazon Frontier, 1996-2005, Rondonia, Brazil
    Examines household land use and economic welfare in the Amazon basin, through the collection of a third round of panel data with improved spatial referencing and a new system for tracking households and individuals. The study area is typical of the arc of deforestation across the southern Brazilian Amazon. Data from this study were used to model the relationship between deforestation and household well-being, thereby gaining insight on welfare outcomes that also have implications for conservation policies. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the residents of the Ouro Preto do Oeste region of the Brazilian state of Rondonia. Demographic questions focused on: education, age, household size, migration and place of birth of the residents. Other questions focused on the ownership of the lots, years of residency on the lots, household income sources, household wealth and assets, as well as household cost of living.

  • Education Statistics (World Bank)
    Worldwide data on education from national statistical reports, statistical annexes of new publications, and other data sources. Includes public expenditure data.

  • EM-DAT : the International Disaster Database
    Essential core data on the occurrence and effects of over 18,000 mass disasters in the world from 1900 to present.

  • Enterprise Surveys
    Company-level data on 130,000+ firms in 135 countries (emerging markets and developing economies). Data are used to create indicators that benchmark the quality of the business and investment climate across countries. Also known as "Micro-Enterprise Survey", "Financial Crisis Survey", "Investment Survey", "Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey", and "Informal Survey". Registration is required.

  • Forcibly Displaced Populations, 1964-2008
    World Refugee Survey series, annual, cross-national, time-series data: numbers of "source" and "host" refugees and internally displaced persons,

  • Foreign Conflict Behavior, 1950-1968
    Contains data on over 13,000 foreign conflict acts of 113 nations in the period 1950-1968. Data are provided for actor and object, either of which may refer to nations, colonies, international organizations, or groups in rebellion against national authority and involved in international relations. Data are also provided for official and unofficial acts, which are categorized into violent and nonviolent acts. Violent acts are further categorized into planned and unplanned acts, as well as unclassified acts. These include warning or defensive acts related to a developing conflict situation, threat, war, clash, or negative behavior such as blockade, embargo, or diplomatic rebuff of one nation by another. Nonviolent acts include boycott and anti-foreign demonstrations.

  • GDELT Project
    GDELT monitors print, broadcast, and web news media in over 100 languages from across every country in the world to keep continually updated on breaking developments anywhere on the planet. Its historical archives stretch back to January 1, 1979 and update daily (soon to be every 15 minutes). Through its ability to leverage the world's collective news media, GDELT moves beyond the focus of the Western media towards a far more global perspective on what's happening and how the world is feeling about it. "The GDELT Project is an initiative to construct a catalog of human societal-scale behavior and beliefs across all countries of the world, connecting every person, organization, location, count, theme, news source, and event across the planet into a single massive network that captures what's happening around the world, what its context is and who's involved, and how the world is feeling about it, every single day."

  • Generations of Talent Study
    Sought to examine several dimensions of quality of employment as experienced by today's multigenerational workforces. The primary goal was to explore how country-related factors and age-related factors affect employees' perceptions of quality of employment. Information was gathered from employees working in 11 different countries including the United States, United Kingdom, China, India, Spain, Brazil, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, South Africa, and Botswana. The industry sectors included technology, pharmaceuticals, consulting, energy, and finance. Demographic variables included gender, birth year, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, number of children, hourly wage, salary, and household income.

  • Global Barometer
    Represents the largest, most careful and systematic comparative survey of attitudes and values toward politics, power, reform, democracy and citizens' political actions in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Arabic region. Based on a common module of questions contained in regional barometer surveys; for additional regional-specific questions, see the original surveys at www.afrobarometer.org, www.arabbarometer.org, www.asianbarometer.org and www.latinobarometro.org. Cross-national comparative surveys have been implemented in 55 political systems -namely Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Vietnam, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Benin, Botswana, Cape Verde, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Jordan, Palestine, Algeria, Morocco, Kuwait and Lebanon. In each of the 55 countries or regions, a national research team administers a country-wide face-to-face survey using standardized survey instruments to compile the required micro-level data under a common research framework and research methodology.

  • Global Bilateral Migration Database
    Global matrices of bilateral migrant stocks spanning the period 1960-2000, disaggregated by gender and based primarily on the foreign-born concept are presented. Over one thousand census and population register records are combined to construct decennial matrices corresponding to the last 5 completed census rounds.

  • Global Digital Activism Data Set, February 2013
    Features coded cases of online digital activism from 151 countries and dependent territories. Several features from each case of digital activism were documented, including the year and month that online action commenced, the estimated age and country of origin of the initiator(s), the geographic scope of their campaign, and whether the action was online only, or also featured offline activities. Researchers were interested in the number and types of software applications that were used by digital activists. Specifically, information was collected on whether software applications were used to circumvent censorship or evade government surveillance, to transfer money or resources, to aid in co-creation by a collaborative group, or for purposes of networking, mobilization, information sharing, or technical violence (destructive/disruptive hacking). The collection illustrates the overall focus of each case of digital activism by defining the cause advanced or defended by the action, the initiator's diagnosis of the problem and its perceived origin, the identification of the targeted audience that the campaign sought to mobilize, as well as the target whose actions the initiators aimed to influence. Finally, each case of digital activism was evaluated in terms of its success or failure in achieving the initiator's objectives, and whether any other positive outcomes were apparent.

  • Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Adult Population Survey Data Set, 1998-2012
    Designed to capture various aspects of firm creation and entrepreneurship across countries.

  • Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM): Expert Questionnaire Data, 1999-2003
    Designed to capture various aspects of firm creation and entrepreneurship across countries. Seeks to measure the national attributes considered critical for new firm births and small firm growth.

    Sample Size: 4,685 experts from over 38 countries and 3 subnational regions: Hong Kong, Shenzhen (China), and Taiwan.

  • Global Financial Inclusion (Global Findex) Database (2011+)
    Measures how people around the world - including the poor, women, and rural residents - manage their day-to-day finances and plan for the future. Expected to be conducted every 3 years. First round included 140 countries.

  • Global Snap Poll on Tsunami in Japan and Impact on Views About Nuclear Energy, 2011
    Carried out by WIN-Gallup International from March 21 to April 10, 2011, in 47 countries across the globe. Aimed to measure public views about the tragic earthquake in Japan and its impact on opinions about nuclear energy. Respondents were asked whether they were in favor of or opposed to the use of nuclear energy as one of the ways to provide electricity to the world, whether they have heard or read about the earthquake and tsunami that hit parts of Japan, and whether they have heard or read about the leakage of radiation from nuclear reactors in Japan as a result of the earthquake. Respondents were also queried on what their views were about nuclear energy before the earthquake in Japan, what their major source of information about the tsunami and earthquake in Japan was, their view on how Japan's economy would recover, whether they were concerned about the possibility of a nuclear incident in their own country, and whether they thought that nuclear power plants in their country were properly secured against accidents. Demographic variables include sex, age, marital status, race, income, education level, employment status, religious preference, and type of residential area (e.g., urban or rural).

  • Global Terrorism Database (1970+)
    Open-source database including information on terrorist events around the world. Unlike many other event databases, includes systematic data on domestic as well as international terrorist incidents that have occurred during this time period and now includes more than 150,000 cases.

  • GlobeScan/BBC World Service Views of Countries' Poll, 2005-2009
    Major survey exploring how people in 33 countries view various countries.

  • Health Studies from Brazil
    Various health studies from Brazil.

  • ICT Diffusion and Distribution Dataset, 1990-2007
    Contains 2 types of indicators for the global distribution of information, communication and technology (ICT) resources. Includes gini coefficients for the distribution of Internet access within countries, and a technology diffusion index that weights the distribution of broadband subscribers, personal computers, mobile phones, Internet users, and international Internet bandwidth by economic output.

  • Immigration Policy: 1783-2010 [Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, Kuwait, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, United Kingdom, United States]
    Measures the restrictiveness of immigration policy for low-skill immigration in the 19 listed countries from the 19th century through to today. The measure is comparable across countries and across time. In addition, the sub-measures used to create the immigration policy variables are included as well.

  • Indigenous Peoples and Afro-descendants in Latin America and the Caribbean Data bank - PIAALC
    Contains different subsystems of information that were created on the basis of several projects developed by the Division in recent years. Includes statistics on population, education, health, labor, and migration.

  • International Comparative Study on the Management, Productivity, and Effectiveness of Research Teams and Institutions (ICSOPRU), 1971-1989
    Aimed to improve the management of research teams and institutions and increase awareness of their responsibility concerning proper application of research results. Concrete objectives were twofold: (1) on the international level, to make widely available comparable facts and experiences concerning the management of research teams and to promote multilateral as well as bilateral cooperation in this field, and (2) on the national level to provide all those concerned (science policy-makers, research managers, scientists, engineers) with substantive information on the state of their national research potential and to encourage them, on the basis of this information compared eventually with similar information from other countries, to take self-corrective actions as needed to improve the level of effectiveness and productivity of the research teams and institutions. 17 countries from Africa, the Arab States, Asia, Europe and Latin America took part. There were 4 stages or rounds of data collection: 6 countries (Austria, Belgium, Finland, Hungary, Poland, Sweden) in Round 1 (February-September 1974), 6 countries (Argentina, Egypt, India, Republic of Korea [South], Poland, Ukrainian S.S.R.) in Round 2 (June 1978-September 1981), 5 countries (Brazil, India, Nigeria, Spain, Ukrainian S.S.R.) in Round 3 (October 1981-November 1985), and 4 countries (China, Ghana, Hungary, Mexico) in Round 4 (May 1985- June 1987). Each round of questionnaires had different items (except for Rounds 2 and 3 which were the same). Round 1 items included general administrative information relevant to the research units answered by the administrator of the unit, scientific information on the research unit and information relevant to the unit's head answered by the head of the unit, individual information answered by scientists and engineers of the unit, individual information answered by technicians of the unit, and external evaluation of the research units from various scientific and administrative perspectives answered by external evaluators. Rounds 2 and 3 included general information about the research unit answered by the head of the unit, information on the respondent and his or her evaluation of the research unit's management, items on productivity and effectiveness answered by head of the unit along with scientists, engineers, and technicians of the unit, EV-rating of the research unit's effectiveness on a series of dimensions dealing with scientific or social criteria and administrative criteria answered by external evaluators. The 4th round of questionnaires included information on the institutional environment of the research unit answered by the head of the institution, general information on the research unit answered by the head of the unit, information on the respondent and his or her evaluation of the research unit's management, items on productivity and effectiveness answered by the head of the unit, scientists, engineers, and technicians.

  • International Crisis Behavior Project (1918-2013)
    Consists of 470 crises and 1,036 crisis actors.

  • International Military Intervention (1946-2005)
    Updates International Military Intervention (IMI), 1946-1988. This newer study documents 447 intervention events from 1989 to 2005. To ensure consistency across the full 1946-2005 time span, the original coding procedures were followed. The data collection thus "documents all cases of military intervention across international boundaries by regular armed forces of independent states" in the international system). "Military interventions are defined operationally in this collection as the movement of regular troops or forces of one country inside another, in the context of some political issue or dispute". As with the original IMI (OIMI) collection, the 1989-2005 dataset includes information on actor and target states, as well as starting and ending dates. It also includes a categorical variable describing the direction of the intervention, i.e., whether it was launched in support of the target government, in opposition to the target government, or against some third party actor within the target state's borders. The intensity of the military intervention is captured in ordinal variables that document the scale of the actor's involvement, "ranging from minor engagement such as evacuation, to patrols, act of intimidation, and actual firing, shelling or bombing". Casualties that are a direct result of the military intervention are coded as well. A novel aspect of IMI is the inclusion of a series of variables designed to ascertain the motivations or issues that prompted the actor to intervene, including to take sides in a domestic dispute in the target state, to affect target state policy, to protect a socio-ethnic or minority group, to attack rebels in sanctuaries in the target state, to protect economic or resource interests, to intervene for strategic purposes, to lend humanitarian aid, to acquire territory or to dispute its ownership, and to protect its own military/diplomatic interests. The variable, civilian casualties, which complements IMI's information on the casualties suffered by actor and target military personnel has been added. OIMI variables on colonial history, previous intervention, alliance partners, alignment of the target, power size of the intervener, and power size of the target have been deleted.

  • International Religious Freedom Data (2001, 2003, 2005, 2008)
    Contains aggregate measures from U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Reports. This coding produced data on 196 different countries and territories but excluded the United States. Also includes 3 indexes calculated from these data: Government Regulation of Religion index, Social Regulation of Religion index, Government Favoritism of Religion index. Part of the Association of Religion Data Archives. 2008 is found separately.

  • IPUMS - Fertility and Mortality Records
    Some IPUMS samples include separate data files documenting fertility or mortality events in the period prior to the census. These data do not fit within the data structure of the IPUMS extracts, because they can include multiple observations per household or per woman. Researchers must download the files and link them to data from the IPUMS extract system.

    Mortality samples are currently available for Brazil (2010), Burkina Faso (1996), Cambodia (2008), El Salvador (1992, 2007), Ethiopia (2007), Guinea (1983), Indonesia (1976), Malawi (1987, 1998, 2008), Mali (1987, 1998), Mozambique (2007), Nepal (2001), Rwanda ((2002), Senegal (2002), Sierra Leone (2004), South Africa (2001, 2007, 2011), South Sudan (2008), Sudan (2008), Uganda (2002), and Zambia (2010).

    Fertility samples are currently available for Guinea (1983) and Mali (1987, 1998).

    Several IPUMS samples have comparable data organized as a series of variables on the household record. These unharmonized variables can be accessed through the data extract system: Mortality - Burkina Faso (1985), Cameroon (1976, 1987), Haiti (2003), Panama (2000), Tanzania (1988), and Vietnam (1989, 1999). Registration is required.

  • IPUMS - Migration Records
    Some IPUMS samples include separate data files documenting migration events in the period prior to the census. These data do not fit within the data structure of the IPUMS extracts, because they can include multiple observations per household or per woman. Researchers must download the files and link them to data from the IPUMS extract system.

    Migration samples are currently available for Brazil (2010), Ecuador (2001, 2010), El Salvador (2007), Malawi (2008), Mexico (2000, 2010), Nepal (2001), Saint Lucia (1991), and Senegal (2002).

    Several IPUMS samples have comparable data organized as a series of variables on the household record. These unharmonized variables can be accessed through the data extract system: Migration - Jamaica (1991), Panama (1990, 2000, 2010). Registration is required.

  • IPUMS-International Census Data
    Project dedicated to collecting and distributing census data from around the world. Samples are currently available for Argentina (1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010), Armenia (2001, 2011), Austria (1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011), Bangladesh (1991, 2001, 2011), Belarus (1999, 2009), Bolivia (1976, 1992, 2001), Botswana (1981, 1991, 2001, 2011), Brazil (1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010), Burkina Faso (1985, 1996, 2006), Cambodia (1998, 2008), Cameroon (1976, 1987, 2005), Canada (1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011), Chile (1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002), China (1982, 1990, 2000), Colombia (1964, 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005), Costa Rica (1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011), Cuba (2002), Dominican Republic (1960, 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010), Ecuador (1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010), Egypt (1986, 1996, 2006), El Salvador (1992, 2007), Ethiopia [1984, 1994, 2007], Fiji (1966, 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007), France (1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011), West Germany (1970, 1987), East Germany (1971, 1981) Ghana (1984, 2000, 2010), Greece (1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011), Guinea (1983, 1996), Haiti (1971, 1982, 2003), Hungary (1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011, India (1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009 -- all employment surveys), Indonesia (1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010), Iran (2006, 2011), Iraq (1997), Ireland (1971, 1979, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011), Israel (1972, 1983, 1995), Italy (2001), Jamaica (1982, 1991, 2001), Jordan (2004), Kenya (1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009), Kyrgyz Republic (1999, 2009), Liberia (1974, 2008), Malawi (1987, 1998, 2008), Malaysia (1970, 1980, 1991, 2000), Mali (1987, 1998, 2009), Mexico (1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015), (Mongolia 1989, 2000), Morocco (1982, 1994, 2004), Mozambique [1997, 2007], Nepal (2001), Netherlands (1960, 1971, 2001), Nicaragua (1971, 1995, 2005), Nigeria (2006-2010), Pakistan (1973, 1981, 1998), Palestine (1997, 2007), Panama (1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010), Paraguay [1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002], Peru (1993, 2007), Philippines (1990, 1995, 2000), Poland (1978, 1988, 2002, 2011), Portugal (1981, 1991, 2001, 2011), Puerto Rico (1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010), Romania (1977, 1992, 2002, 2011), Rwanda (1991, 2002), Saint Lucia (1980, 1991), Senegal (1988, 2002), Sierra Leone (2004), Slovenia (2002), South Africa (1996, 2001, 2007, 2011), Spain (1981, 1991, 2001, 2011), South Sudan (2008), Sudan (2008), Switzerland (1970, 1980, 1990, 2000), Tanzania (1988, 2002, 2012), Thailand (1970, 1980, 1990, 2000), Trinidad and Tobago (1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011), Turkey (1985, 1990, 2000), Uganda (1991, 2001), Ukraine (2001), United Kingdom (1991, 2001), United States (1850+), Uruguay (1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011), Venezuela (1971, 1981, 1990, 2001), Vietnam (1989, 1999, 2009), Zambia (1990, 2000, 2010). Registration is required.

  • Job Flows Dataset (1978-2001)
    Contains information on job flows for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Uruguay.

  • KAPS: Family Planning Studies (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices studies)
    In the 1960s and 70s, the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices studies surveyed women and men across the world about family planning, birth control, pregnancy, and sex. The majority of the samples are of women under the age of 50, married women, and women living in cities and metropolitan areas. The featured countries are Mexico, the United States, Israel, the Philippines, France, Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Argentina, Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Peru. What is the ideal family size? What is the impact of the population growth rate, will it cause societal problems? What methods of birth control are used the most frequently? Is it even acceptable to use birth control at all? What are the reasons people have children? Personal questions about fertility, conception, sterility, abortion, and unwanted pregnancies are also addressed. In addition to family planning, the KAPS studies also feature gender and societal topics. What kind of education would you want for your daughter? What are the appropriate roles for women? How often does your husband help with housework? Should married women work outside the home?

  • Land Use, Agropastoral Production, Family Composition, and Household Economy in Santarem, Para, Brazil, June-August 2003 (ICPSR 34347)
    Consists of 8 interconnected datasets and 1 linking file. The primary unit of analysis is the rural property or lot. Each lot in the sample contains a minimum of 1 household with a mean of 1.33 households per lot in the final sample. Within households, data were collected on subsets of individuals as well as additional properties used by the households in the study. These 2003 Santarem data come from interviews with farm families in an agricultural zone south of the city of Santarem in the Brazilian state of Para. The study region is adjacent to the confluence of the Amazon and Tapajos Rivers and the northern terminus of the BR-163 (the Cuiaba-Santarem Highway). BR-163 links intensive agropastoral production (particularly mechanized soybean farming) in the state of Mato Grosso to Santarem, where the multinational corporation Cargill runs a deepwater port (opened in 2003) for loading soybeans onto oceangoing ships. The opening of this port has accelerated the process of urbanization and led to a transformation from a landscape of small family farming to a landscape of mechanized agriculture. The discourse on deforestation has focused on the alarming rates of deforestation in the Amazon Basin to the neglect of the dynamic and reciprocal influences between the human population and the environment. This study investigated 5 basic questions: (1) Does the changing availability of household labor over the household life cycle affect the trajectory of deforestation and land use change in the same way for later generations of Amazonian farmers as for first generation in-migrants? (2) What are the determinants of changing household labor supply? Specifically, what are the biophysical and socioeconomic determinants of entries into and exits from the household through fertility, migration, and marriage? (3) How are the decisions of households regarding land use and labor allocation constrained by soil quality, access to water supplies, interannual drought events (e.g. El Nino type events), and other resource scarcities? (4) Are there notable differences in land use choices made by landholders who live in an urban area (away from the piece of land owned in the rural area) in contrast to the decisions made by those who live on their rural properties? (5) What are the bases for the precipitous decline in female fertility in these frontier regions, especially the use of sterilization after two pregnancies? Households will be surveyed in the Santarem region, in the Lower Tapajos Basin, Brazilian Amazon to collect detailed demographic, land-use histories, and economic data. The sampling of households for inclusion in the study will be based on a stratified random sample by period of occupation in Santarem, to capture intergenerational processes that preceded the availability of satellite images. Based on the particular combination of methodologies used in this investigation (traditional household surveys, satellite image analysis, and GIS, and the scaling up and down from households to landscape), future environmental changes were projected for the regional landscape under various scenarios of continued settlement, household life cycles, combinations of credit, and changing environmental conditions.

  • Latin America elite poll II
    537 elites were interviewed in face-to-face meetings between August 20 and October 2, 2003. Interviews were conducted in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. A near-equal portion of each of the following sectors was targeted: government, media, academia, and business. For the purposes of the survey, elites are defined as high/middle-high income respondents with special knowledge of their area of interest.

  • Latin American Databank at Roper
    Public opinion surveys conducted by the survey research community in Latin America, including universities, institutes, individual scholars, private polling and public opinion research firms. To date, the collection holds nearly 1,200 studies from 16 countries, with the largest contributions coming from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela.

    Princeton has a subscription to the Roper Center. To access a study from this archive that is not online, identify it in their catalog and then send a request to a data@princeton.edu and supply the title and study number.

  • Latin American Electronic Data Archive. Latin American Electoral Data.
    Links to sources of Latin American electoral data.

  • Latin American Mortality Database (LAMBdA)
    Supports the study of very recent mortality trends and is particularly suited for the study of old age mortality during the post-WWII period. Covers the interval between 1848 and 2014. Includes population censuses, age-specific (five year and single year age groups) total death counts (starting in 1900), and by causes of deaths (starting in 1945). Free registration is required.

  • Latinobarometro (1995+)
    Summary level public opinion data for Latin America and Spain. Microdata is also available through 2015 in Stata format. Note: A survey was not conducted in 1999 or 2014.

  • Legislative Support, Pork, and Coalitions in Brazil, January 1997-December 2005
    Examined how presidents in multiparty regimes win legislative support by considering dynamism, particular bargaining contexts, and combining separate lines of research on distributive politics and coalition formation.

  • Levels of Democracy and Democratic Institutionalization in 18 Latin American Countries, 1978-2004
    analyzed the level of democracy achieved by 18 Latin American countries after 1977, between the transitions from authoritarian rule and 2004. Despite authoritarian interruptions in the past, one of the best predictors of the current level of democracy is the country's experience with competitive politics before 1978. Created original indicators to show that democratic trajectories are institutionalized through political parties and judicial institutions, and we documented the impact of regime legacies using a hybrid fixed-effects model.

  • Lijphart Elections Archive
    Static research collection of district level election results for approximately 350 national legislative elections in 26 countries that was maintained through 2003.

  • Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) household surveys
    Established by the World Bank in 1980 to explore ways of improving the type and quality of household data collected by government statistical offices in developing countries. Objectives were to develop new methods for monitoring progress in raising levels of living, to identify the consequences for households of current and proposed government policies, and to improve communications between survey statisticians, analysts, and policymakers. Surveys have been conducted in more than two dozen countries. See the LSMS Data Set Finder for topics by country.

    Data is available for download from the web site for:

    • Albania 1996 (requires permission), 2002-2005, 2008, 2012
    • Azerbaijan 1995
    • Bosnia and Herzegovina 2001-2004
    • Brazil 1996-1997
    • Bulgaria 1995, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2007
    • China 1995, 1997
    • Cote d'Ivoire 1985-1988
    • Ethiopia 2011-2012, 2013-2014
    • Guatemala 2000
    • India 1997-1998
    • Iraq 2006-2007, 2012-2013
    • Yugoslavia- Kosovo 2000
    • Kyrgyz Republic 1993, 1996-1998
    • Malawi 2004-2005 (restricted), 2010-2011, 2013 (unrestricted)
    • Nicaragua 1993, 1998-1999, 2001, 2005
    • Niger 2011
    • Nigeria 2010-2011, 2012-2013
    • Panama 1997, 2003, 2008
    • Papua New Guinea 1996
    • Peru 1985, 1990-1991, 1994
    • Serbia 2002, 2003, 2007
    • South Africa 1993
    • Tajikistan 1999, 2003, 2007, 2009
    • Tanzania 1991-1994, 2004, 2008-2011
    • Timor Leste 2001, 2007
    • Uganda 2010-2012

    Surveys have been done in other countries but procedures for obtaining the data vary.

    • Armenia 1996
    • Ecuador 1994,1995,1998
    • Ghana 1987-1989, 1991-1992, 1998-1999, 2005-2006
    • Guyana 1992-1993
    • Jamaica 1988-2000
    • Kazakhstan 1996
    • Morocco 1991
    • Nepal 1996, 2003-2004, 2010-2011
    • Pakistan 1991
    • Romania 1994-1995
    • Viet Nam 1992-1993, 1997-1998, 2002-2004

  • Longitudinal Survey Data of Households in Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondonia, Brazil, 1996-2009
    Updates Dynamics of Household Land Use and Economic Welfare on the Amazon Frontier, 1996-2005, Rondonia, Brazil, examines household land use and economic welfare of residents living in the highly deforested Amazon basin region of southern Brazil. This release represents the 4th round of data collection which includes primary data from household panel surveys in the core study area, combined with several other sources of data, including cadastral maps matched with satellite imagery to quantify land cover change, spatial data on biophysical factors, markets, and public infrastructure, and secondary data from official sources (such as agricultural census data). Interviews were conducted with respondents residing in the Ouro Preto do Oeste region of the Brazilian state of Rondonia. Survey questions focused on respondent ownership of land lots, years of residency on the lots, property sales, physical characteristics of lots and dwellings, types and quantity of livestock and crops, and use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. Several questions asked respondents whether they owned various durables, including vehicles, household appliances, tools, and farm equipment. Demographic information includes age of respondent and other household occupants, household size, migration, and education level, as well as information on household income, assets, pensions, and cost of living.

  • Luxembourg Income Studies (LIS)
    Household income surveys involving 43 countries. Also available are the Luxembourg Employment Study, a database containing data on labor force characteristics for 16 countries (ceased in 2000 and incorporated into LIS), and the Luxembourg Wealth Study, a database containing data on household wealth in 12 countries. Users must register to gain access, but registration is free for academic use. For variables in the LIS and LWS over time see their web sites.

  • Major Episodes of Political Violence, 1946-2016
    Annual, cross-national, time-series data on interstate, societal, and communal warfare magnitude scores (independence, interstate, ethnic, and civil; violence and warfare); also, scores for neighboring countries and regional context

  • Manifesto Project Database
    Deals with different aspects of political party performance as well as the structure and development of party systems. Based on quantitative content analyses of parties' election programs from more than 50 countries covering all free, democratic elections since 1945.

  • Manpower Employment Outlook Survey (1st Quarter 2007+)
    Indicator of hiring activity for the next quarter. The forecast includes responses from over 65,000 employers in 42 countries and covers the world's major labor markets.

  • Measurement of Cross-cutting Cleavages and Other Multidimensional Cleavage Structures
    Contains 69 new indices for race, ethnicity, language, religion, income, and geography.

  • Measuring Brain Drain by Gender 1990-2000
    Emigration stocks and rates are provided by level of schooling and gender for 195 source countries in 1990 and 2000.

  • Migration and Remittances Factbook

  • Minorities at Risk (MAR) Project (1945+)
    Tracks 282 politically-active ethnic groups throughout the world -- identifying where they are, what they do, and what happens to them. Focuses specifically on ethnopolitical groups, non-state communal groups that have "political significance" in the contemporary world because of their status and political actions. Political significance is determined by: (1) The group collectively suffers, or benefits from, systematic discriminatory treatment compared to other groups in a society and (2) The group is the basis for political mobilization and collective action in defense or promotion of its self-defined interests.

  • Modelo
    Contains data on key socio-economic indicators for Parana State, Brazil.

  • Montevideo-Oxford Latin American Economic History Database
    Economic and social indicators covering 20 Latin American countries for 1900-2010.

  • Network Scale-up Method for Heavy Drug Users in Curitiba, Brazil
    Conducted to evaluate the network scale-up method for estimating the sizes of groups most at-risk for HIV/AIDS. Using 4 different data sources, 2 of which were from other researchers, the authors produced 5 estimates of the number of heavy drug users in Curitiba, Brazil.

  • Occupational Wages around the World (OWW) Database
    Contains occupational wage data for 161 occupations in 171 countries from 1983 to 2008.

  • OECD Health Data
    Examines national health systems from 1960 forward for OECD member countries and select non-OECD countries in a general, demographic, economic, and social context.

  • Offshoring and Outsourcing Innovation? The New Challenge for Multinationals, 2007-2010
    Western multinationals are now increasingly locating their research and development (R&D) activities in the emerging economies of China and India. This offshoring of innovation raises the following questions for policy makers and multinational firms: 1) What is the extent and nature of outsourcing and offshoring innovation, especially to emerging economies like India and China? 2) What are the main drivers of the globalisation of innovation? Answering these questions involved collecting secondary data on the R&D locations of the world's largest multinationals. The sample covers a wide range of industries, including pharmaceuticals, chemicals, electronics, engineering, and equipment manufacturing. Data were collected in 4 steps. First, an in-depth search of corporate and subsidiary websites across individual countries was used to objectively identify the location and number of R&D facilities across nations. Second, these data were cross-checked and complemented with searches of the Factiva and Corporate Affiliations databases. Factiva provides news reports from global media, and includes reports of R&D activities. Corporate Affiliations is a repository of information of corporations' affiliates, subsidiaries, and divisions worldwide. Third, a subset of these data were further cross-checked by matching the locations of R&D centres with the addresses of inventors of patents assigned in the last 3 years to these firms; the Delphion database and the US Patent and Trade Office website were used for these searches. Fourth, managers of individual firms were contacted to clarify contradictions. Includes Fortune 500 companies listed in 2008 (excluding financial services firms) in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, UK & USA.These data are under embargo at the request of the depositor until 1 January 2012. To obtain a free account please register with the UKDA.

  • Open Knowledge Brasil

  • Pattern of Human Concerns Data, 1957-1963
    Of the 14 nations included in the original study, these data cover the following 10: Brazil, Cuba, Dominican Republic, India, Israel, Nigeria, Panama, United States, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. (The data for Egypt, Japan, the Philippines, and Poland are not available through ICPSR.) In India and Israel the interviews were conducted in 2 waves, with different samples. Besides ascertaining the usual personal information, the study employed a "Self-Anchoring Striving Scale," an open-ended scale asking the respondent to define hopes and fears for self and the nation, to determine the two extremes of a self-defined spectrum on each of several variables. After these subjective ratings were obtained, the respondents indicated their perceptions of where they and their nations stood on a hypothetical ladder at three different points in time. Demographic variables include the respondents' age, gender, marital status, and level of education.

  • Pesquisa de Avaliacao de Impacto do Programa Bolsa Familia
    The Bolsa Familia, created in 2003, is a conditional cash transfer program in Brazil for families in poverty to promote the immediate relief of poverty through direct cash transfers. The rupture of intergenerational poverty cycle is expected through conditionalities that reinforce the exercise of social rights in areas of health and education, and that potentially provide the fight against future poverty by investing in the development of human capital. This dataset is used to research the impact of the program.

  • Pesquisa de Orcamentos Familiares 1995-1996
    Brazil Consumer Expenditure Survey 1995-1996. Covers the metropolitan areas of Belem, Fortaleza, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizante, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, and the cities of Brasilia and Goiania. Data on expenditures, income, housing, and household demographics were obtained through an expenditure diary, household expenditure and income questionnaires, individual expenditure and income questionnaires, and a short housing and household roster questionnaire. The microdata are broken down by geographic area.

  • Pesquisa de Orcamentos Familiares 2002-2003
    Brazil Consumer Expenditure Survey 2002-2003. 1st consumer expenditure survey to be conducted nationally in Brazil. The first 2 surveys of the series (1987-1988 and 1995-1996) only covered metropolitan areas of the country. Data on expenditures, income, housing, and household demographics was obtained through an expenditure diary, a household expenditure questionnaire, individual expenditure and income questionnaires, a short housing and household roster questionnaire, and a living conditions questionnaire.

  • Pesquisa de Orcamentos Familiares 2008-2009
    Brazil Consumer Expenditure Survey 2008-2009. For the 2008-2009 survey, the questionnaires were expanded to include modules on detailed consumption of food, fertility, and anthropometry in addition to modules on household expenditure, individual expenditure and income, housing, and household demographics.

  • Pesquisa Nacional de Saude (2013)

  • Pesquisa Nacional de Saude do Escolar (2015)

  • Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios (1973-1979, 1981-1990, 1992-1993, 1995-1999, 2001-2004, 2006-2009, 2011-2015)
    National household sample survey for Brazil. Includes general characteristics of the population, migration, education, labor, income and fertility, as well as families and households. Also available directly from IBGE.

  • Pesquisa Social Brasileira (PESB) (2002)
    Social Survey for Brazil includes questions on social hierarchy, violence and crime, racial relations, and sexuality and health. As the Program Officer with the Ford Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Edward Telles was responsible for funding both the CEAP and PESB 2000 data collection projects.

  • Pew Global Attitudes Project
    Worldwide public opinion surveys that encompasses a broad array of subjects ranging from people's assessments of their own lives to their views about the current state of the world and important issues of the day. Topics have included views of Asian nations of each other, Muslims in Europe, images of the United States, the Iraq War, and foreign policy. Surveys include different nations and topics by year.

  • Political Events Project, 1948-1965
    Contains data on 6,754 political instability events in 84 selected nations in the period 1948-1965. These data, which permit measurement of political instability and the correlates of internal conflict behavior, are concerned with conflict directed by groups and individuals in the prevailing political system against other groups or persons, and with uncovering the determinants of stability within all national political systems. The variables in the dataset are divided into four basic types: variables that identify events, classify events, describe events, and evaluate events. The study provides a conflict intensity rating for each event. Political instability events are classified from low to high and include institutionally prescribed elections, the fall of cabinets, martial laws, assassinations of significant group leaders, mass arrests, coup d'etats, and civil wars.

  • Polity IV: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800-2016
    Contains information on and access to the most recent update of the well-known and highly respected Polity data series, originally designed by Ted Robert Gurr. Polity IV contains coded annual information on regime and authority characteristics for all independent states (with greater than 500,000 total population) in the global state system.

  • Polling the Nations
    Compilation of public opinion surveys conducted in the United States and more than 100 other countries. Each record includes the question asked and the responses given, the polling organization responsible for the work, the date the information was released, the sample size, and the groups or areas included in the interview.

  • Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations
    Provides a global data set of point locations and attributes describing nuclear power plants and reactors.

  • Portal ODM
    Contains data on Millennium Development Goals and other social, environmental and economic indicators for 5,564 Brazilian municipalities.

  • Presenca do Estado no Brasil: federacao, suas unidades e municipalidades (2009)
    Municipal level statistics on social assistance, health, education, work, public banks, infrastructure and transportation, public security, and culture in Brazil. Also available from the IPEA.

  • Produto Interno Bruto Dos Municipios (1999-2007)
    Gross Municipal Product for Brazilian cities.

  • Project on Ethnicity and Race in Latin America (PERLA)
    Goal is to empirically examine numerous dimensions of race and ethnicity across Latin America. Includes in-depth ethnicity and race surveys in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru.

  • RAND Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents
    Records terrorist incidents that occurred from 1968-2009. Free registration is required.

  • Regional Core Health Data Initiative (Pan American Health Organization)
    Multidimensional query tool that offers a collection of 108 indicators for 48 states and territories of the Americas from 1995 to 2007 as well as Canada and the United States. The system presents data and indicators on: demography; socioeconomics; mortality by cause indicators; morbidity and risk factors; and access, resources and health services coverage. Selected indicators are disaggregated into age groups, sex and/or urban/rural region.

  • Religion and State Constitutions, 1990-2002
    Set of measures that systematically gauge the intersection between government and religion. Examines constitutional clauses that address religion for 169 states on a yearly basis between 1990 and 2002. This constitutes all countries with populations of 250,000 or more, as well as a sampling of smaller states.

  • Representation and Development in Brazil, 1972-1973
    Designed to measure 2 sets of respondents' preferences regarding salient policy issues, their evaluations of political life and government performance, and their conceptions of relationships between themselves and their representatives in labor unions and in the political arena at large.

  • Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE): A Cross-National Study (1996--2008)
    Compiles cross-national data that contain information that can be used to examine the effects of early life conditions on older adult health conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, obesity, functionality, mortality, and self-reported health. The complete cross sectional/longitudinal dataset (n=147,278) was compiled from major studies of older adults or households across the world that in most instances are representative of the older adult population either nationally, in major urban centers, or in provinces. It includes over 180 variables with information on demographic and geographic variables along with information about early life conditions and life course events for older adults in low, middle and high income countries. Selected variables were harmonized to facilitate cross national comparisons.

  • SABE - Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (2000)
    Examined health conditions and functional limitations of persons aged 60 and older in the countries of Argentina, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Uruguay, with special focus on persons over 80 years of age.

  • Seguranca alimentar, 2004 : Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios
    Regional statistics on food supply in Brazil derived from a national household sample survey.

  • SIPRI's databases (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute)
    Includes databases including statistics on securty trends, multilateral peace operations, military expenditures, arms transfers, arms embargoes, and arms exports.

  • Sistema de Informacoes e Indicadores Culturais (2003-2005)
    Cultural statistics for Brazil.

  • Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean (CEDLAS and The World Bank)
    Includes statistics on poverty and other distributional and social variables from 25 Latin American and Caribbean countries, based on microdata from households surveys. Some data is subnational.

  • Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals
    Investigates the religious, political, and civic views of renewalists (i.e., Pentecostals and Charismatics) around the world. Includes surveys in 10 countries with sizeable renewalist populations: the United States; Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, India, the Philippines, and South Korea. In each country, surveys were conducted among a random sample of the general public, with an oversample of renewalists, to yield sufficient sample sizes for analysis.

  • State Fragility Index and Matrix, Time-Series Data, 1995-2016
    Provides annual state fragility, effectiveness, and legitimacy indices and the 8 component indicators for the world's 167 countries with populations greater than 500,000 in 2016.

  • Statistical Abstracts of the World (ProQuest)
    For a select list of countries, contains recent yearbooks. Tables are available in Excel format and have been converted to English.

  • Statistics of Trade Union Membership (1980-2009)
    Includes data for 49 countries. Dates vary by country but range from 1980-2009. For post 2009, use ILOSTAT. Once in click on "Browse by subject" then "Yearly indicators" then Industrial Relations.

    Citation:
    Statistics of Trade Union Membership (1980-2009) (Electronic File)
    Producer: International Labor Office

  • Stratification and Mobility in a Latin American City: Guanabara, Brazil, 1959-1962
    Gathered occupational and economic information from 2 distinct groups of respondents in Guanabara, Brazil, from 1959-1962: one group from the urban area and the other from the slums. The respondent's occupation was examined in variables describing current job, amount of supervised rather than independent work, permanent or transitory nature of the job, income, and second occupation if applicable. Further variables ascertained the respondent's interest and involvement in his or her surroundings: membership in clubs and organizations, political party affiliation, and newspapers read. A major portion of the study explored the composition of the respondent's family and the kind of home in which he or she lived.

  • Terra Populus: Integrated Data on Population and Environment
    Integrates the world's population and environmental data, including population censuses and surveys; land cover information from remote sensing; climate records from weather stations; and land use records from statistical agencies. Currently includes over 80 countries.

  • The Game of Contacts (Heavy drug users: Curitiba, Brazil)
    Collected as nested items in a behavioral surveillance study of heavy drug users in Curitiba, Brazil. This larger behavioral surveillance study was conducted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation as part of the 10-city Brazilian Behavioral Surveillance Study of heavy drug users (Bastos, 2009). The game of contacts data enables researchers to estimate the network composition and social visibility of groups. These estimates may be of intrinsic interest or may be used to adjust estimates of the sizes of hard-to-count populations made using the network scale-up method. For additional information about the game of contacts see Salganik et al. (2011).

  • Transnational Social Movement Organization Dataset, 1953-2003
    Brings new data to the investigation of relationships between globalization, social movements, and political change. Aims to enhance understanding of the organizational foundations for transnational activism, namely the population of transnational social movement organizations. Contains 301 variables. The variables were either taken directly from the Yearbook of International Organizations, or created from information in the Yearbook.

  • University of Campinas Public Opinion Databank
    Large Brazilian archive of public opinion polls. Searching and documentation is in Portuguese, but many files are freely available for download.

  • University of Texas Inequality Project
    Project concerned with measuring and explaining movements of inequality in wages and earnings and patterns of industrial change around the world. National and regional inequality data for Argentina, Brazil, China, Cuba, Europe, India, Russia, and the United States. National and industrial inequality data for Taiwan.

  • University Students' Values, Vocations, and Political Orientations: Brazil, 1964
    Surveyed a sample of university engineering students in Brazil to give a picture of social, economic, political, and psychological aspects of university life. Educational background information was obtained through extensive questions about the respondents' secondary school education and subjects studied, as well as the levels of education that both their parents and grandparents had achieved. Respondents were further queried about the function of the university and the best qualities of the professors. One portion of the survey probed the respondents' attitudes and outlook on life: the importance of maintaining family ties, acceptance of authority, moral responsibility, and the negative aspects of human nature as evidenced in wars and political corruption. The respondents' interest in national and international affairs was explored through variables concerning politics, political parties, and internationally known heads of state. Demographic information includes age and marital status.

  • Voice of the People Series (2005+)
    Annual survey to solicit public opinion on social and political issues. Every year the survey will be conducted in approximately 50 countries, with a minimal sample size of 500 per country. Wherever possible, within each country a nationally representative sample n=500 adults, male and female, aged 18 and older will be used. In some emergent countries, where such research conditions are not possible, there may be stated variations to this (e.g. urban areas only). Similarly, in the developed world interviews will be conducted by telephone, while in emergent and under-developed countries face to face interviews will be conducted. Demographic variables include sex, age, household income, education level, employment status, and religious preference.

  • Voting Attitudes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1960
    Conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in August 1960, two to four weeks before the presidential election. The study first established the amount of political information that respondents had received through the news media. Further questions ascertained their interest in the coming election, their past voting decisions, and their party preferences. The respondents' perceptions of social class rating and their ideas about the distribution of wealth and improvement of living conditions were also explored. Demographic data include the respondents' occupation, education, age, marital status, race, sex, and socioeconomic status.

  • WHO Mortality Database
    World Health Organization compilation of mortality data by age, sex and cause of death, as reported annually by member states from their civil registration systems.

  • Women in Development Series (1979-1980, 1983)
    Series of studies on women in development in 1970 with data drawn primarily from national censuses, surveys, statistical abstracts, and international statistical compendia. References are also made in some cases to evaluative studies conducted by individual researchers, research teams, and the staff of the International Demographic Data Center of the Bureau. These data constitute the most recently available information at the time of collection. The aim of this data series was to provide a reliable, up-to-date, accessible database on women in development which can illuminate the discrepancies in the roles and status of women against those of men throughout the world in order to serve as a basis for the promotion of both intranational and international parity between the sexes. The studies that comprise the Women in Development series consist of national-level data concerning female/male differentials over a range of demographic and socio-economic variables. Wherever possible, the data are broken down by age and urban/rural residence to facilitate further analysis. The series is cumulative and the data are presented in basic tabular format. Initially, the data tables were compiled for 69 developing nations from Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the Near East that were recipients of the United States Agency for International Development aid. The first collection, Women in Development, 1979-1980 (ICPSR 8053), included all the aid-recipient nations regardless of population size. Subsequently, data were compiled for all remaining nations of the world with a population of five million or more, and statistics for the original nations were updated to reflect more recent information. The second collection in the series, Women in Development IV, 1983 (ICPSR 8155), covered approximately 120 nations from Asia, the Pacific, Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Near East, North America, Europe, and the Soviet Union.

  • Women in National Parliaments (1997+)
    World and regional averages of the percentage of women in national parliaments.

  • Women in Parliament, 1945-2003: Cross-National Dataset
    Information on women's inclusion in parliamentary bodies in over 150 countries from 1945 to 2003. Allows for extensive, large-scale, cross-national investigation of the factors that explain women's attainment of political power over time and provides educators with comprehensive international and historical information on women in a variety of political positions. Information is provided on female suffrage, the first female member of parliament, yearly percentages of women in parliaments, when women reached important representational milestones, such as 10 %, 20 %, and 30 % of a legislature, and when women achieved highly-visible political positions, such as prime minister, president, or head of parliament.

  • World Bank Group Country Opinion Survey Program (COS)
    Interested in gauging the views of clients and partners who are either involved in development in the given country or who observe activities related to social and economic development. Meant to give the World Bank's team that works in the given country, more in-depth insight into how the Bank's work is perceived.

  • World Bank Microdata Library
    Portal for all surveys and datasets held in catalogs maintained by the World Bank and a number of contributing external catalogs.

  • World Contraceptive Use (2010, 2012, 2016)
    Includes trends on contraceptive prevalence and unmet needs for family planning. 2012 and 2016 can also be found on the UN Site..

  • World Database of Happiness: States of Nations
    Includes summary information from social surveys indicating levels of happiness in about 95 countries around the world, along with data on possible causal factors. Includes state level measures for the USA.

  • World Development Indicators
    Development indicators from the World Bank. Covers population, education, health, aid, poverty and environmental indicators for 217 countries.

  • World Fertility Data (2006, 2008, 2012, 2015)
    Presents data on age-specific fertility rates, total fertility and mean age at childbearing for 201 countries or areas of the world. Covers the time period from 1950 to the present. Data for the time period before 1950 have been included as well, if readily available, but no systematic attempt was made to collect data prior to 1950 for all countries. 2015 is also found on the UN site.

  • World Handbook of Aging and Social Security Indicators (1950-1980)
    Contains 184 variables prepared by the authors in connection with their comparative study of government support of the aged. The data is focused on indicators relevant to social security (social welfare) programs and to the health and welfare of the aged. Some variables have data on up to 131 nations, although most variables have data on fewer nations, as only a limited number of nations have social security data available.

  • World Health Survey (WHS) (2002-2004)
    Monitors critical health outcomes and health systems through the fielding of a valid, reliable, and comparable household survey instrument. The WHS was implemented between 2002 and 2004 in countries selected to represent all regions of the world. Study samples were nationally representative and probabilistically selected. Sampling weights were generated and adjusted for the population distribution with final post-stratification corrections for non-response. The total sample size, using nationally representative samples, includes over 300,000 individuals aged 18+ years. For China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, WHS also serves as SAGE Wave 0. Household data includes a household roster, health insurance coverage, health expenditures, and indicators of permanent income or wealth. Individual level data include sociodemographic information, health state descriptions, health state valuation, risk factors, chronic conditions, mortality, health care utilization, health systems responsiveness and social capital. Registration is required. Each nation was surveyed once during this period. ICPSR has Waves 0 and 1 only. Countries covered: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain. Bangladesh, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Canada, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo Republic, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyz Republic. Lao PDR, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Senegal, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Thailand, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

  • World Income Inequality Database
    The UNU/WIDER World Income Inequality Database (WIID) collects and stores information on income inequality for developed, developing, and transition countries.

  • World Marriage Data (2006, 2008, 2012, 2015)
    Provides comparable data on the marital status of the population by age and sex for 231 countries or areas of the world. Contains data on marital status of men and women, currently married men and women, ever married men and women and singulate mean age at marriage (SMAM). Data are presented from around 1970 to the most recent data available. 2015 is also found on the UN site.

  • World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers [Trade] Series (1961-1993)
    Worldwide and regional annual totals of military spending.

  • World Mortality Report (2011)
    Includes death rates, infant mortality, under age 5 mortality, life expectancy, and probability of dying between ages 15 and 60. Some data goes back to 1950 with projections to 2015.

  • World Population Prospects
    Comprehensive set of demographic indicators for 1950-2100. Includes measures of fertility, life expectancy, migration, and measures of the impact of HIV/AIDS. Older versions are on the DSS server.

  • World Public Opinion.org
    Program on International Policy Attitudes site providing public opinion from around the world.

  • World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database (2016 ed.)
    Contains time series data for 1960, 1965, 1970 and annually from 1975-2015 for around 180 different telecommunication and ICT statistics covering the telecommunication network and ICT uptake, mobile services, quality of service, traffic, staff, tariffs, revenue and investment. Data for over 200 economies are available. For select series more recent data may be available on the ITU website. Also see ITU Historical Statistics with select data from 1849-1967.

  • World Values Survey (WVS)
    Designed to enable a crossnational comparison of values and norms on a wide variety of topics and to monitor changes in values and attitudes across the globe. A variety of questions on religion and morality were included. Coverage includes: Albania - 1998, 2002; Algeria - 2002, 2014; Andorra - 2005; Argentina - 1991, 1995, 1999, 2006, 2013; Armenia - 1997, 2011; Australia - 1995, 2005, 2012; Austria - 1990, 1999; Azerbaijan - 1997, 2011-2012; Bahrain (2014); Bangladesh - 1996, 2002; Belarus - 1996, 2000, 2011; Belgium - 1981, 1990, 1999; Bosnia and Herzegovinia - 1998, 2001; Brazil - 1990, 1997, 2006, 2014; Bulgaria - 1990, 1997, 1999, 2006; Burkina Faso - 2007; Canada - 1982, 1990, 2000, 2006; Chile - 1990, 1996, 2000, 2006; China - 1990, 1995, 2001, 2006, 2012; Colombia - 1998, 2005, 2012; Croatia - 1996, 1999; Cyprus - 2006, 2011; Czech Republic - 1991, 1998, 1999; Denmark - 1981, 1990, 1999; Dominican Republic - 1998; Ecuador - 2013; Egypt - 2000, 2008, 2012; El Salvador - 1999; Estonia - 1990, 1996, 1999, 2011; Ethiopia - 2007; Finland - 1990, 1996, 2000, 2005; France - 1981, 1990, 1999, 2006; Georgia - 1996, 2008, 2014; Germany - 2006, 2013; Germany East - 1990, 1997; Germany West - 1981, 1990, 1997; Ghana - 2007, 2011; Great Britain - 1981, 1990, 1998, 1999 (also see United Kingdom); Greece - 1999; Hong Kong - 2005, 2013; Hungary - 1991, 1998, 1999; Iceland - 1984, 1990, 1999; India - 1990, 1996, 2001, 2006, 2014; Indonesia - 2001, 2006; Iran - 2003, 2005; Iraq - 2006, 2013; Ireland - 1981, 1990, 1999; Israel - 2001; Italy - 1981, 1990, 1999, 2005; Japan - 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010; Jordan - 2007, 2014; Kazakhstan - 2011; Kuwait - 2013; Kyrgyzstan - 2003, 2011; Lativa - 1990, 1996, 1999; Lebanon - 2013; Libya - 2013; Lithuania - 1990, 1997, 1999; Luxembourg - 1999; Macedonia - 1998, 2001; Malaysia - 2006, 2011; Mali - 2007; Malta - 1983, 1991, 1999; Mexico - 1995, 1996, 2000, 2005, 2012; Moldova - 1996, 2006; Montenegro - 1996, 2001; Morocco - 2001, 2007, 2011; Netherlands - 1981, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2012; New Zealand - 1998, 2004, 2011; Nigeria - 1990, 1995, 2000, 2011; Northern Ireland - 1981, 1999 (also see United Kingdom); Norway - 1990, 1996, 2007; Pakistan - 1997, 2001, 2012; Palestine - 2013; Peru - 1995, 2001, 2006, 2012; Philippines - 1996, 2001, 2012; Poland - 1990, 1997, 1999, 2005, 2012; Portugal - 1990, 1999; Puerto Rico - 1995, 2001; Qatar- 2010; Romania - 1993, 1998, 1999, 2005, 2012; Russia - 1996, 1999, 2006, 2011; Rwanda - 2007, 2012; Saudi Arabia - 2003; Serbia - 1996, 2001, 2006; Singapore - 2002, 2012; Slovakia - 1991, 1998, 1999; Slovenia - 1992, 1995, 1999, 2005, 2011; South Africa - 1990, 1996, 2001, 2006, 2013; South Korea - 1980, 1990, 1996, 2001, 2005, 2010; Spain - 1981, 1990, 1995, 1999, 2000, 2007, 2011; Sweden - 1990, 1996, 1999, 2006, 2011; Switzerland - 1989, 1996, 2007; Taiwan - 1995, 2006, 2012; Tanzania - 2001; Thailand - 2007, 2013; Trinidad and Tobago - 2006, 2010; Turkey - 1990, 1997, 2001, 2007, 2011; Uganda - 2001; Ukraine - 1996, 1999, 2006, 2011; United Kingdom - 2006 (also see Great Britain and Northern Ireland); United States - 1982, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2006, 2011; Uruguay - 1996, 2006, 2011; Uzbekistan - 2011; Venezuela - 1996, 2000; Vietnam - 2001, 2006; Yemen - 2013; Zambia - 2007; and Zimbabwe - 2001, 2011.

This page last updated: October 21, 2009